In order to avoid the low sensitivity common problem of 532nm sensitive narrow-band response photocathode, variable doping narrow-band response GaAlAs photocathode structure is designed. The photocathode is composed of GaAs substrates, Ga1-x1Alx1As buffer layer, Ga1-x2Alx2As doping concentration gradient emissive layer and GaAs protection layer from bottom to top. Among them, exponential doping method is applied to Ga1-x2Alx2As unit layer from the bottom to the top. And a preparation methods of GaAlAs photocathode is developed. For the GaAlAs photocathode components which grow well, chemical cleaning, heating purification and (Cs, O) activation are operated, and ultimately Cs / O activation layer is formed on the surface of Ga1-x2Alx2As doping concentration gradient emissive layer. The highest sensitivity of the photocathode peak response is at 532nm, and the photocathode quantum efficiency in 532nm peaks at 36%.
In order to obtain the suitable photocathode which could be applicable for the field of ocean exploration, the p-type zinc (Zn)-doped reflection-mode GaAlAs photocathode sample using exponential-doping technique is grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition, the Al component of GaAlAs emission layer is designed to be 0.63. After the chemical etching, the photocathode samples are heated in vacuum at high-temperature of 650°C and 600°C respectively, the vacuum variation curves during the heat cleaning are measured, which correspond to the desorption of oxides in the surface of GaAlAs emission layer. The (Cs, O) activation for the photocathodes is executed after heat cleaning. Different proportion of Cs and O is performed on the different photocathode samples. The activation photocurrent curves of two samples with different heat cleaning temperature show that the GaAlAs surface treated by higher heat cleaning temperature is more sensitive to the Cs-O adsorption. The photocathode activated with the larger Cs current has a shorter time to reach the first photocurrent peak, and also obtains a bigger final photocurrent peak. According to the measured spectral response curves, it could be found that a suitable heat cleaning temperature and a moderate Cs/O current ratio are very important to prepare high performance GaAlAs photocathode. The prepared reflection-mode GaAlAs photocathodes are response to the blue-green light, and the cut-off wavelength is at about 580 nm.
In order to know performance of transmission-mode photocathode module completely, the GaAs photocathode with
a structure of Glass/Si<sub>3</sub>N<sub>4</sub>/Ga<sub>1-x</sub>Al<sub>x</sub>As/GaAs was prepared in the experiment and the reflectance and transmittance spectra were measured by the spectrophotometer. Meanwhile optical constants of the GaAs active layer and the Ga<sub>1-x</sub>AlxAs window layer in the photocathode are discussed by using piecewise polynomial fitting method. On this basis of analysis on the optical constants, the theoretical reflectance, transmittance and absorptivity of cathode module are
calculated and revised with the aid of matrix formula in thin film optics. The thickness of each layer in the module is
obtained by fitting the reflectance and transmittance curves simultaneously. The results indicates that the thicknesses
of three thin films except Glass are respectively 110.14 μm, 1007.20 μm, 1480.81 μm with the relative curve error less than 5%, meanwhile the error of the module thickness in total is also controlled within 5%.