We report cylinder photon traps, prism photon traps, and SiO2/Ta2O5 antireflection films added to the active areas of short wavelength infrared detectors. The total device thickness was estimated ~3.3μm and with the p-i-n structure based on antimonide. The simulation results show that the photon traps increase the absorption of the invisible spectrum distinctly. Also, the optical measurements reveal that maximal responsivity of the detector with PTs array is 0.094A/W in the visible range and 0.64A/W in the short wavelength infrared spectrum. The responsivity in the wavelength of short-wave infrared can be increased apparently as well. Thus, the photon traps array may a potential method for antimonide-based visible to short wavelength infrared bispectral photodetector.
Cesium iodide (CsI) photocathode is widely used in various UV (ultraviolet) detecting devices because of its high quantum efficiency (QE) and good stability under short exposure to humid air. In this paper, the performance of the opaque CsI photocathode is studied, including imaging performance, influence of humidity on the quantum efficiency and the stability of the CsI photocathode under FUV irradiation. In the experiment, the input surface of the MCP was evenly divided into four parts. Different thicknesses of the CsI photocathode were deposited directly on the front surface of micro-channel plates (opaque photocathode). The response of different thicknesses and the stability of UV quantum efficiency of CsI photocathode under FUV illumination were studied by using UV monochromator. At the same time, the influence of humid air exposure on the quantum efficiency of CsI photocathode was tested. According to the experimental results, a FUV detector (vacuum tube) based on opaque CsI photocathode was fabricated and the quantum efficiency of the detector was tested. Absolute quantum efficiency of the FUV detector is over 15.5% at 121nm.
We report three kinds of surface passivation for AlxInyAsSb APD, which are SiO<sub>2</sub>, SiO<sub>2</sub> after sulfuration and SU8 2005 treatments. A good sidewall profile of mesas were etch by Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) to 2.6μm depth. The order of dark current for device with SU8 passivation is less than -12 under the temperature of 100K. Dark current and photocurrent increase linearly with diameter of mesa. Also, the devices with different passivation methods produce photocurrent excited by incident power. The measurements are consistent with CV modeling and electric field simulations.
A small size and long slit streak tube with high spatial resolution was designed and optimized. Curved photocathode and screen were adopted to increase the photocathode working area and spatial resolution. High physical temporal resolution obtained by using a slit accelerating electrode. Deflection sensitivity of the streak tube was improved by adopting two-folded deflection plates. The simulations indicate that the photocathode effective working area can reach 30mm × 5mm. The static spatial resolution is higher than 40lp/mm and 12lp/mm along scanning and slit directions respectively while the physical temporal resolution is higher than 60ps. The magnification is 0.75 and 0.77 in scanning and slit directions. And also, the deflection sensitivity is as high as 37mm/kV. The external dimension of the streak tube are only ∅74mm×231mm. Thus, it can be applied to laser imaging radar system for large field of view and high range precision detection.
Streak tube imaging lidar, as a novel flash lidar, due to its advantages of higher resolution for low contrast conditions, compact and rugged physical configurations, small image distortions owing to its scannerless design, and higher image update rates, has immense potential to provide 3D single-laser-pulse scannerless imaging, 3D multispectral imaging, 3D multispectral fluorescence imaging, and 3D polarimetry. In order to further reduce the size and enlarge the field of view (FOV) of the lidar system, we designed a super small-size, large photocathode area and meshless streak tube with spherical cathode and screen. With the aid of Computer Simulation Technology Software package (CST), a model of the streak tube was built, and its predominant performances were illustrated via tracking electron trajectories. Spatial resolution of the streak tube reaches 20lp/mm over the entire ∅28mm photocathode working area, and its temporal resolution is better than 30ps. Most importantly, the external dimensions of the streak tube are only ∅50mmx100mm. And several prototypes are already manufactured on the basis of the computer design.
The quantum efficiency characteristics of InP/In<sub>0.53</sub>Ga<sub>0.47</sub>As/InP photocathode which is one of the field-assisted negative electron affinity photocathodes with III-V compound semiconductor and works at transmission mode with a wide<sup>1</sup> spectral response range from 1.0-1.7 μm were studied in this paper. Under certain field-assisted bias voltage, internal quantum efficiency at different wavelength versus structure parameters and doping concentration of the photocathode was simulated by the APSYS program. Results show that: First, internal quantum efficiency of the photocathode rises with the increasing of the field-assisted bias voltage. Second, the internal quantum efficiency gradually increases to a maximum at thickness=0.2um of P-InGaAs photo-absorbing layer and then reduces with the increasing of thickness. However, doping concentration of P-InGaAs photo-absorbing layer has little influence on it. Third, the internal quantum efficiency reduces with the increasing of thickness and doping concentration of P-InP photoelectron-emitting layer. The optimization results show that when the thickness of the photo-absorbing layer and the photoelectron-emitting layer are both 0.2 μm, and the doping concentration of the photo-absorbing layer and the photoelectron-emitting layer are about 1.5×10<sup>15</sup> cm<sup>-3</sup> and 1.0×10<sup>16</sup> cm<sup>-3 </sup>respectively, under a certain field-assisted bias voltage, the line of the external quantum efficiency versus wavelength is ideal. Besides, the response time of photocathode can be reduced to less than 50 ps.
Highly photo-excited layer thickness in GaAs is measured using a pump probe arrangement. A normally incident pump illumination spatially modulated by a mask will induce a corresponding refractive index change distribution in the depth direction due to edge scattering and attenuation absorption effect, which can deflect the probe beam passing through this excited region. Maximum deflection of the probe beam will be limited by the thickness of excited layer, and thus can also be employed to measure the thickness of the photo-excited layer of the material. Theoretical calculation confirms the experimental results. This method can find its application in measurements of photo-excited layer thickness of many kinds of materials and be significant to study the characteristics of materials in laser machining, grating and waveguide fabricating.