In recent years, the detection of pesticide residues is an important research field in China. Traditional methods which include biochemical methods and chromatography methods have high requirement for the experimental environment. Thus traditional methods cannot complete tasks in a short time. NIR spectrum represents physical features of matters and pesticide residues on fruit can change the NIR spectrum reflected by surface. It is feasible to make sure that if there is pesticide residues on fruit or not by analyzing the NIR spectrum reflected by surface. The method of spectrum analysis is easy to conduct and faster than traditional methods.