Diffractive telescopes are ideal to space-based lidar receivers, because of their advantages of mass and surface shape tolerances. To develop diffractive optical systems, the aberration properties and high order diffraction of diffractive lenses were discussed. The aberration properties are suitable for lidar receivers. High order diffraction is helpful to improve diffractive lens fabrication and decrease system length. And it can be realized by modifying the surface figures of a diffractive lens, mainly the ring widths and depth. A 1-meter aperture diffractive telescope design with simple structure was given, providing spot diameters less than 45μm over the whole field of view.