A single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) double-pulse injection-seeded neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser was established utilizing an RbTiOPO4 electro-optic crystal to modulate the optical path of the slave resonator for generating a resonance condition. The Q-switcher was fired twice during every pump period. This enabled the laser to emit a pair of SLM laser pulses with a time separation of 200 μs. Each pulse had a pulse energy of 13 mJ at 50-Hz repetition rate, pulse duration of 20±0.5 ns, and linewidth of 30±0.3 MHz (within 2 min). The beam quality factor of M2 was <1.22. A frequency jitter of 1.4 MHz was obtained within 2 min.
An all‐fiber pulsed coherent Doppler LIDAR (CDL) system is described. It uses a fiber laser as a light source at a 1.54‐μm wavelength, producing 200 μJ pulses at 10 kHz. The local oscillator signal is mixed with the backscattered light (of different frequency) in the fiber. The atmospheric wind speed is determined through the fast Fourier transform applied to the difference frequency signal acquired by an analog‐to‐digital converter card. This system was used to measure the atmospheric wind above the upper‐air meteorological observatory in Rongcheng (37.10°N, 122.25°E) of China between January 7 and 19, 2015. The CDL data are compared with sounding‐ and pilot‐balloon measurements to assess the CDL performance. The results show that the correlation coefficient of the different wind‐speed measurements is 0.93 and their discrepancy 0.64 m/s; the correlation coefficient for wind‐direction values is 0.92 and their discrepancy 5.8 deg. A time serial of the wind field, which benefits the understanding of atmospheric dynamics, is presented after the comparisons between data from CDL and balloons. The CDL system has a compact structure and demonstrates good stability, reliability, and a potential for application to wind‐field measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer.
A single-mode single frequency eye-safe pulsed all fiber laser based on master oscillator power amplification structure is presented. This laser is composed of a narrow linewidth distributed laser diode seed laser and two-stage cascade amplifiers. 0.8 m longitudinally gradient strained erbium/ytterbium co-doped polarization-maintaining fiber with a core diameter of 10 μm is used as the gain fiber and two acoustic-optics modulators are adopted to enhance pulse extinction ratio. A peak power of 160 W and a pulse width of 200 ns at 10 kHz repetition rate are achieved with transform-limited linewidth and diffraction-limited beam quality. This laser will be employed in a compact short range coherent Doppler wind lidar.
Recent progress in the research of a diode pumped, single-frequency 355nm laser for direct-detection wind lidar is
presented. An injection seeded Nd:YAG laser was designed and built. A 'delay-ramp-fire' technique is used to achieve
single-longitudinal-mode and stable energy. In this technique, stable time relation between the resonance peak and the
pump pulse is achieved by feedback controlling the delay time between the pump pulse and the ramp voltage. The resulting
single frequency pulses are amplified and frequency tripled. This laser operates at 100Hz and provides 30mJ/pulse of
single-frequency 355 nm output with M2 value of <1.5. The frequency stability of the injection seeded Nd:YAG laser was
investigated. The piezo hysteresis is found to be the main reason to cause the frequency unstability. In an environment
avoiding high frequency vibration the frequency stability is determined by the motion linearity and ramping speed of the
piezo actuator. A modified approach is proposed to improve the frequency stability of an injection seeded laser.
Fringe technique is preferred to edge technique of wind measurement in troposphere for a direct-detect Doppler wind lidar. However, most fringe-technique based Doppler lidar systems have been developed to date are based on conventional Fabry-perot interferometer. The purpose of this paper is to introduce our development of fringe-technique lidar based on Fizeau interferometer in which the signal can be detected more conveniently using commercial linear detector. The pre-development of the lidar system is described including interferometer's optimum design, the frequency stabilization of Fizeau interferometer and the choice of multi-anode detector. In additional, the wind error of the system is simulated with taking account of Rayleigh noise. Results shows that the wind error can be less than 0.56m/s under 5 km with 30s integral time.
A direct-detection Doppler lidar for planetary boundary layer wind field measurement utilizing multi-beam Fizeau interferometer (MFI) is proposed. Fringe imaging and edge techniques are popular methods of incoherent wind speed measurement. In boundary layer, where aerosol backscattering is strong, it is good to measure wind velocity with fringe imaging technique. Fabry-Perot interferometers (FPI) are standard instruments in former incoherent lidar. Their performance is restricted from detector channels. However, linear fringes of MFI can be measured directly by linear detector, for example, charge coupled device (CCD). The MFI consists of two flat plates which assembled much like a FPI, but wedged by a small angle. Through three PZTs fixed on one plate, the plates spacing can be tuned and the wedge angle can be adjusted. The physical properties of the MFI are discussed in this paper. The factors affecting the measurement of Doppler frequency shift and the correction methods are analyzed and presented. A set of practical system parameters is proposed. The numerical simulation of system performance is implemented. Under different parameters of MFI, error of horizontal wind speed is compared in boundary layer. It shows that the error can be less than 1m/s using the optimized parameters of MFI.