In a general way, non-CARs consist of the matrix resins and photoactive compounds (PACs), and the dissolution properties of the resists are dependent on the amount of PACs. In common, I-line and G-line resists based on novolac and diazonaphthoquinone (DNQ) are typical non-CARs. But most PACs absorb much light in the deep UV, and they are poorly photobleached by deep UV exposure. This strong absorption of PACs prevents the deep UV light from reaching the bottom of the resist film, leading to scum and sloped pattern profiles. Several PACs which contain diazoketo groups have been reported for deep UV lithography. Our goal in this investigation is to find a proper resist that is processable without photoacid generator and induces both photobleaching in the deep UV regions and polarity change upon exposure. We thought diazoketo groups attached to the polymer side chains could give such effects. There is no necessity for the post-exposure bake step that is the cause of acid-diffusion. The diazoketo groups undergo the Wolff rearrangement upon irradiation in the deep UV, affording ketenes that react with water to provide base soluble photoproducts. The polymers were synthesized by radical copolymerization of 2-(2-diazo-3-oxo-butyryloxy)-ethyl methacrylate, 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate, and γ-butyrolacton-2-yl methacrylate. The single component resist showed 0.7μm line and space patterns using a mercury-xenon lamp in a contact printing mode.
Monomer diffusion in an organic-inorganic nanocomposite films during the holographic recording was investigated. The photopolymer films with low shrinkage were prepared by dispersing an aromatic methacrylic monomer and a photo-initiator in organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel matrices. The shrinkage of the photopolymer film and the diffusion of monomers during the holographic recording could be controlled by optimizing the content of an organically modified silica precursor (ORMOSIL) in the sol-gel matrices. The photopolymer film showed high diffraction efficiency (>90%) under an optimized condition. Photo-sensitivity, angular selectivity and application potential for holographic data storage and optical application will be discussed.
By using inclusion chemistry, low-molecular-weight organic materials such as 8-hydroxy-quinoline derivative-metal complexes (ZnQ2, AlQ3) were encapsulated by t-butyloxycarbonyloxy (t-BOC)-protected β-cyclodextrin to increase their processibility and to protect them against atmospheric environment. Since the products showed increased solubility in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, methylenechloride, and chloroform, they could be processed by solution method like spin-coating. Their absorbance and emission spectra were nearly the same compared to their unmodified coordinated complex. By using deprotection reactions of t-BOC groups, these materials were patterned by a simple photolithographic process.