Holography has demonstrated potential to achieve a wide field of view, focus supporting, optical see-through augmented reality display in an eyeglasses form factor. Although phase modulating spatial light modulators are becoming available, the phase-only hologram generation algorithms are still imprecise resulting in severe artifacts in the reconstructed imagery. Since the holographic phase retrieval problem is non-linear and non-convex and computationally expensive with the solutions being non-unique, the existing methods make several assumptions to make the phase-only hologram computation tractable. In this work, we deviate from any such approximations and solve the holographic phase retrieval problem as a quadratic problem using complex Wirtinger gradients and standard first-order optimization methods. Our approach results in high-quality phase hologram generation with at least an order of magnitude improvement over existing state-of-the-art approaches.
Real time holographic display has been a long-term goal for many display engineers. The promise of true 3D display with accommodation and motion parallax as well as stereopsis is compelling; the daunting challenges involved in realizing such a display include a very high resolution display which scales radically with field-of-view and viewing zone size. Computation, bandwidth, and the requirement for coherent light are also significant challenges. Progress since the 1960s has been slow, but conceptual breakthroughs and the development of enabling technology have finally enabled significant demonstrations of some applications.
Attack! of the S. Mutans is a multi-player game designed to harness the immersion and appeal possible with wide-fieldof-
view stereoscopic 3D to combat the tooth decay epidemic. Tooth decay is one of the leading causes of school
absences and costs more than $100B annually in the U.S. In 2008 the authors received a grant from the National
Institutes of Health to build a science museum exhibit that included a suite of serious games involving the behaviors and
bacteria that cause cavities. The centerpiece is an adventure game where five simultaneous players use modified Wii
controllers to battle biofilms and bacteria while immersed in environments generated within a 11-foot stereoscopic
WUXGA display. The authors describe the system and interface used in this prototype application and some of the ways
they attempted to use the power of immersion and the appeal of S3D revolution to change health attitudes and self-care
While discussing the current state of stereo head-mounted and 3D projection displays, the authors came to the realization that flat-panel LCD displays offer higher resolution than projection for stereo display at a low (and continually dropping) cost. More specifically, where head-mounted displays of moderate resolution and field-of-view cost tens of thousands of dollars, we can achieve an angular resolution approaching that of the human eye with a field-of-view (FOV) greater than 90° for less than $1500.
For many immersive applications head tracking is unnecessary and sometimes even undesirable, and a low cost/high quality wide FOV display may significantly increase the application space for 3D display. After outlining the problem and potential of this solution we describe the initial construction of a simple Wheatstone stereoscope using 24" LCD displays and then show engineering improvements that increase the FOV and usability of the system.
The applicability of a high-immersion, high-resolution display for art, entertainment, and simulation is presented along with a content production system that utilizes the capabilities of the system. We then discuss the potential use of the system for VR pain control therapy, treatment of post-traumatic stress disorders and other serious games applications.
The NYU Media Research Laboratory has developed a single- person, non-invasive, active autostereoscopic display with no mechanically moving parts that provides a realistic stereoscopic image over a large continuous viewing area and range of distance [Perlin]. We believe this to be the first such display in existence. The display uses eye tracking to determine the pitch and placement of a dynamic parallax barrier, but rather than using the even/odd interlace found in other parallax barrier systems, the NYU system uses wide vertical stripes both in the barrier structure and in the interlaced image. The system rapidly cycles through three different positional phases for every frame so that the stripes of the individual phases are not perceived by the user. By this combination of temporal and spatial multiplexing, we are able to deliver full screen resolution to each eye of an observer at any position within an angular volume of 20 degrees horizontally and vertically and over a distance range of 0.3 - 1.5 meters. We include a discussion of recent hardware and software improvements made in the second generation of the display. Hardware improvements have increased contrast, reduced flicker, improved eye tracking, and allowed the incorporation of OpenGL acceleration. Software improvements have increased frame rate, reduced latency and visual artifacts, and improved the robustness and accuracy of calibration. New directions for research are also discussed.
The Virtual Retinal Display (VRD) is a unique approach to developing a high-resolution head- mounted display currently under development at the University of Washington's Human Interface Technology (HIT) Laboratory. Rather than looking at a screen though a magnifier or optical relay system, the viewer of the VRD has a scanned beam of light enter the pupil of the eye and focused to a spot on the retina. This type of optical system is subject to different design constraints than a typical HMD. With the VRD it may be possible to realize higher resolution, greater color saturation, higher brightness and larger field-of-view than a traditional LCD or CRT screen-based system. In this paper the author will present the VRD approach and how it can provide these advantages. Issues to be resolved for the VRD to reach its full potential and some of the solutions developed at the HIT lab will also be discussed.
We present an electro-optical apparatus capable of displaying a computer generated hologram
(CGH) in real time. The CGH is calculated by a supercomputer, read from a fast frame buffer, and
transmitted to a high-bandwidth acousto-optic modulator (AOM). Coherent light is modulated by the
AOM and optically processed to produce a three-dimensional image with horizontal parallax.