In numerous medical and scientific fields, knowledge of the optical properties of tissues can be applied. Among many different ways of determining the optical properties of turbid media; integrating sphere measurements are widely used. However, this technique is associated with bulky equipment, complicated measuring techniques, interference compensation techniques, and inconvenient sample handling. This paper describes measurements of the optical properties of porcine brain tissue using novel instrumentation for simultaneous absorption and scattering characterization of small turbid samples. The system used measures both angularly and spatially resolved transmission and reflection and is called Combined Angular and Spatially-resolved Head (CASH) sensor. The results compare very well with data obtained with an integrating sphere for well-defined samples. The instrument was shown to be accurate to within 12% for μa, and 1% for μs' in measurements of intralipid-ink samples. The corresponding variations of data were 17%, and 2%, respectively. The reduced scattering coefficient for porcine white matter was measured to be 100 cm-1, while the value for coagulated brain tissue was 65 cm-1. The corresponding absorption coefficients were 2 and 3 cm-1, respectively.
Radiofrequency (RF) lesioning in the human brain is one possible surgical therapy for severe pain as well as movement disorders. One obstacle for a safer lesioning procedure is the lack of size monitoring. The aim of this study was to investigate if changes in laser Doppler or intensity signals could be used as markers for size estimation during experimental RF lesioning. A 2 mm in diameter monopolar RF electrode was equipped with optical fibers and connected to a digital laser Doppler system. The optical RF electrode's performance was equal to a standard RF electrode with the same dimensions. An albumin solution with scatterers was used to evaluate the intensity and laser Doppler signal changes during lesioning at 70, 80, and 90 °C. Significant signal changes were found for these three different clot sizes, represented by the temperatures (p<0.05, n=10). The volume, width, and length of the created coagulations were correlated to the intensity signal changes (r=0.88, n=30, p<0.0001) and to the perfusion signal changes (r=0.81, n=30, p<0.0001). Both static and Doppler-shifted light can be used to follow the lesioning procedure as well as being used for lesion size estimation during experimental RF lesioning.
Radio frequency (RF) lesioning in the human brain is a common surgical therapy for relieving severe pain as well as for movement disorders such as Parkinsonia. During the procedure a small electrode is introduced by stereotactic means towards a target area localized by CT or MRI. An RF-current is applied through the electrode tip when positioned in the target area. The tissue in the proximity of the tip is heated by the current and finally coagulated.
The overall aim of this study was to improve the RF-technique and its ability to estimate lesion size by means of optical methods. Therefore, the optical differences between white and gray matter, as well as lesioned and unlesioned tissue were investigated. Reflection spectroscopy measurements in the range of 450-800 nm were conducted on fully anesthetized pigs during stereotactic RF-lesioning (n=6). Light from a tungsten lamp was guided to the electrode tip through optical fibers, inserted along a 2 mm in diameter monopolar RF-electrode. Measurements were performed in steps of 0-10 mm from the target in each hemisphere towards the entry point of the skull. In the central gray of the porcine brain measurements were performed both before and after the creation of a lesion. A total of 55 spectra were collected during this study. Correlation to tissue type was done using post-operative MR-images. The spectral signature for white and gray matter differs significantly for the entire spectral range of 450-800 nm. Pre- and post-lesioning reflection spectroscopy showed the largest differences below 600 and above 620 nm, which implies that lasers within this wavelength range may be useful for in-vivo measurements of tissue optical changes during RF-lesioning.