4MOST, the 4m Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope, is an upcoming optical, fibre-fed, MOS facility for the VISTA telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile. Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, highenergy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. The preliminary design of 4MOST features 2436 fibres split into lowresolution (1624 fibres, 370-950 nm, R < 4000) and high-resolution spectrographs (812 fibres, three arms, ~44-69 nm coverage each, R < 18000) with a fibre positioner and covering an hexagonal field of view of ~4.1 deg<sup>2</sup>. The 4MOST consortium consists of several institutes in Europe and Australia under leadership of the Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam (AIP). 4MOST is currently in its Final Design Phase with an expected start of science operations in 2022. In this paper, the final optomechanical design and performances of 4MOST Low Resolution Spectrograph will be presented. It has been designed by CRAL for 4MOST FDR held in May, 2018. Special emphasis will be put on the technical requirements of individual optics and the mechanical design with its associated FEA.
The Maunakea Spectroscopic Explorer (MSE) Project is a planned replacement for the existing 3.6-m Canada France Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) into a 10-m class dedicated wide field highly multiplexed fibre fed spectroscopic facility. MSE seeks to tackle basic science questions ranging from the origin of stars and stellar systems, Galaxy archaeology at early times, galaxy evolution across cosmic time, to cosmology and the nature of dark matter and dark energy. MSE will be a primary follow-up facility for many key future photometric and astrometric surveys, as well as a major component in the study of the multi-wavelength Universe. The MSE is based on a prime focus telescope concept which illuminate 3200 fibres or more. These fibres are feeding a Low Moderate Resolution (LMR) spectrograph and a High Resolution (HR). The LMR will provide 2 resolution modes at R>2500 and R>5000 on a wavelength range of 360 to 950 nm and a resolution of R>;3000 on the 950 nm to 1300 nm bandwidth. Possibly the H band will be also covered by a second NIR mode from ranging from 1450 to 1780 nm. The HR will have a resolution of R>39000 on the 360 to 600 nm wavelength range and R>;20000 on the 600 to 900 nm bandwith. This paper presents the LMR design after its Conceptual Design Review held in June 2017. It focuses on the general concept, optical and mechanical design of the instrument. It describes the associated preliminary expected performances especially concerning optical and thermal performances.
We present an overview and status update of the 4MOST project at the Final Design Review. 4MOST is a major new wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope at the Paranal Observatory of ESO. Starting in 2022, 4MOST will deploy 2436 optical fibres in a 4.1 square degree field-of-view using a fibre positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres will feed one high-resolution (R~20,000) and two low-resolution (R~5000) spectrographs that all have fixed configuration, 3-channel designs with identical 6k x 6k CCD detectors. Updated performance estimates will be presented based on components already manufactured and pre-production prototypes of critical subsystems.
The 4MOST science goals are mostly driven by a number of large area, space-based observatories of prime European interest: Gaia and PLATO (Galactic Archeology and Stellar Physics), eROSITA (High-Energy Sky), and Euclid (Cosmology and Galaxy Evolution). Science cases based on these observatories, along with wide-area ground-based facilities such as LSST, VISTA and VST drive the ten Consortium Surveys covering a large fraction of the Southern sky, with bright time mostly devoted to the Milky Way disk and bulge areas and the Magellanic Clouds, and the dark/gray time largely devoted to extra-galactic targets. In addition there will be a significant fraction of the fibre-hours devoted to Community Surveys, making 4MOST a true general-purpose survey facility, capable of delivering spectra of samples of objects that are spread over a large fraction of the sky.
The 4MOST Facility Simulator was created to show the feasibility of the innovative operations scheme of 4MOST with all surveys operating in parallel. The simulator uses the mock catalogues created by the science teams, simulates the spectral throughput and detection of the objects, assigns the fibres at each telescope pointing, creates pointing distributions across the sky and simulates a 5-year survey (including overhead, calibration and weather losses), and finally does data quality analyses and computes the science Figure-of-Merits to assess the quality of science produced. The simulations prove the full feasibility of running different surveys in parallel.
This paper introduces the science software of HARMONI. The Instrument Numerical Model simulates the instrument from the optical point of view and provides synthetic exposures simulating detector readouts from data-cubes containing astrophysical scenes. The Data Reduction Software converts raw-data frames into a fully calibrated, scientifically usable data cube. We present the functionalities and the preliminary design of this software, describe some of the methods and algorithms used and highlight the challenges that we will have to face.
4MOST, the 4m Multi Object Spectroscopic Telescope, is an upcoming optical, fibre-fed, MOS facility for the VISTA telescope at ESO's Paranal Observatory in Chile. Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, highenergy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. The preliminary design of 4MOST features 2436 fibres split into lowresolution (1624 fibres, 370-950 nm, R > 4000) and high-resolution spectrographs (812 fibres, three arms, ~44-69 nm coverage each, R >18000) with a fibre positioner and covering an hexagonal field of view of ~4.1 deg<sup>2</sup>. The 4MOST consortium consists of several institutes in Europe and Australia under leadership of the Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik, Potsdam (AIP). 4MOST is currently in its Preliminary Design Phase with an expected start of science operations in 2021. Two third of fibres go to two Low Resolution Spectrographs with three channels per spectrograph. Each low resolution spectrograph is composed of 812 scientific and 10 calibration fibres using 85μm core fibres at f/3, a 200mm beam for an off-axis collimator associated to its Schmidt corrector, 3 arms with f/1.73 cameras and standard 6k x 6k 15μm pixel detectors. CRAL has the responsibility of the Low Resolution Spectrographs. In this paper, the optical design and performances of 4MOST Low Resolution Spectrograph designed for 4MOST PDR in June, 2016 will be presented. Special emphasis will be put on the Low Resolution Spectrograph system budget and performance analysis.
We present an overview of the 4MOST project at the Preliminary Design Review. 4MOST is a major new wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of ESO. 4MOST has a broad range of science goals ranging from Galactic Archaeology and stellar physics to the high-energy physics, galaxy evolution, and cosmology. Starting in 2021, 4MOST will deploy 2436 fibres in a 4.1 square degree field-of-view using a positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres will feed one high-resolution (R~20,000) and two medium resolution (R~5000) spectrographs with fixed 3-channel designs and identical 6k x 6k CCD detectors. 4MOST will have a unique operations concept in which 5-year public surveys from both the consortium and the ESO community will be combined and observed in parallel during each exposure. The 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of this observing concept, showing that we can expect to observe more than 25 million objects in each 5-year survey period and will eventually be used to plan and conduct the actual survey.
HARMONI is the E-ELT’s first light visible and near-infrared integral field spectrograph. It will provide four different spatial scales, ranging from coarse spaxels of 60 × 30 mas best suited for seeing limited observations, to 4 mas spaxels that Nyquist sample the diffraction limited point spread function of the E-ELT at near-infrared wavelengths. Each spaxel scale may be combined with eleven spectral settings, that provide a range of spectral resolving powers (R ~3500, 7500 and 20000) and instantaneous wavelength coverage spanning the 0.5 – 2.4 μm wavelength range of the instrument. In autumn 2015, the HARMONI project started the Preliminary Design Phase, following signature of the contract to design, build, test and commission the instrument, signed between the European Southern Observatory and the UK Science and Technology Facilities Council. Crucially, the contract also includes the preliminary design of the HARMONI Laser Tomographic Adaptive Optics system. The instrument’s technical specifications were finalized in the period leading up to contract signature. In this paper, we report on the first activity carried out during preliminary design, defining the baseline architecture for the system, and the trade-off studies leading up to the choice of baseline.
HARMONI is a visible and near-infrared (0.47 to 2.45 μm) integral field spectrometer, providing the E-ELT's core
spectroscopic capability, over a range of resolving powers from R (≡λ/Δλ)~500 to R~20000. The instrument provides simultaneous spectra of ~32000 spaxels at visible and near-IR wavelengths, arranged in a √2:1 aspect ratio contiguous field. HARMONI is conceived as a workhorse instrument, addressing many of the E-ELT’s key science cases, and will
exploit the E-ELT's scientific potential in its early years, starting at first light. HARMONI provides a range of spatial
pixel (spaxel) scales and spectral resolving powers, which permit the user to optimally configure the instrument for a
wide range of science programs; from ultra-sensitive to diffraction limited, spatially resolved, physical (via morphology),
chemical (via abundances and line ratios) and kinematic (via line-of-sight velocities) studies of astrophysical sources.
Recently, the HARMONI design has undergone substantial changes due to significant modifications to the interface with
the telescope and the architecture of the E-ELT Nasmyth platform. We present an overview of the capabilities of
HARMONI, and of its design from a functional and performance viewpoint.
MUSE Instrumentation Software is the software devoted to the control of the Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer
(MUSE), a second-generation VLT panoramic integral-field spectrograph instrument, installed at Paranal in January
2014. It includes an advanced and user-friendly GUI to display the raw data of the 24 detectors, as well as the on-line
reconstructed images of the field of view allowing users to assess the quality of the data in quasi-real
time. Furthermore, it implements the slow guiding system used to remove effects of possible differential drifts between
the telescope guide probe and the instrument, and reach high image stability (<0.03 arcsec RMS stability).
In this paper we report about the software design and describe the developed tools that efficiently support astronomers
while operating this complex instrument at the telescope.
4MOST is a wide-field, high-multiplex spectroscopic survey facility under development for the VISTA telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Its main science drivers are in the fields of galactic archeology, high-energy physics, galaxy evolution and cosmology. 4MOST will in particular provide the spectroscopic complements to the large
area surveys coming from space missions like Gaia, eROSITA, Euclid, and PLATO and from ground-based facilities like VISTA, VST, DES, LSST and SKA. The 4MOST baseline concept features a 2.5 degree diameter field-of-view with ~2400 fibres in the focal surface that are configured by a fibre positioner based on the tilting spine principle. The fibres feed two types of spectrographs; ~1600 fibres go to two spectrographs with resolution R<5000 (λ~390-930 nm) and
~800 fibres to a spectrograph with R>18,000 (λ~392-437 nm and 515-572 nm and 605-675 nm). Both types of spectrographs are fixed-configuration, three-channel spectrographs. 4MOST will have an unique operations concept in which 5 year public surveys from both the consortium and the ESO community will be combined and observed in parallel during each exposure, resulting in more than 25 million spectra of targets spread over a large fraction of the
southern sky. The 4MOST Facility Simulator (4FS) was developed to demonstrate the feasibility of this observing
concept. 4MOST has been accepted for implementation by ESO with operations expected to start by the end of 2020.
This paper provides a top-level overview of the 4MOST facility, while other papers in these proceedings provide more
detailed descriptions of the instrument concept, the instrument requirements development, the systems engineering implementation, the instrument model, the fibre positioner concepts, the fibre feed, and the spectrographs.
The 4MOST instrument is a concept for a wide-field, fibre-fed high multiplex spectroscopic instrument facility on the
ESO VISTA telescope designed to perform a massive (initially >25x106 spectra in 5 years) combined all-sky public
survey. The main science drivers are: Gaia follow up of chemo-dynamical structure of the Milky Way, stellar radial
velocities, parameters and abundances, chemical tagging; eROSITA follow up of cosmology with x-ray clusters of
galaxies, X-ray AGN/galaxy evolution to z~5, Galactic X-ray sources and resolving the Galactic edge;
Euclid/LSST/SKA and other survey follow up of Dark Energy, Galaxy evolution and transients. The surveys will be
undertaken simultaneously requiring: highly advanced targeting and scheduling software, also comprehensive data
reduction and analysis tools to produce high-level data products. The instrument will allow simultaneous observations of
~1600 targets at R~5,000 from 390-900nm and ~800 targets at R<18,000 in three channels between ~395-675nm
(channel bandwidth: 45nm blue, 57nm green and 69nm red) over a hexagonal field of view of ~ 4.1 degrees. The initial
5-year 4MOST survey is currently expect to start in 2020. We provide and overview of the 4MOST systems: optomechanical,
control, data management and operations concepts; and initial performance estimates.
MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is an integral-field spectrograph which will be mounted on the Very Large
Telescope (VLT). MUSE is being built for ESO by a European consortium under the supervision of the Centre de
Recherche Astrophysique de Lyon (CRAL).
In this context, CRAL is responsible for the development of dedicated software to help MUSE users prepare and submit
their observations. This software, called MUSE-PS, is based on the ESO SkyCat tool that combines visualization of
images and access to catalogs and archive data for astronomy. MUSE-PS has been developed as a plugin to SkyCat to
add new features specific to MUSE observations.
In this paper, we present the MUSE observation preparation tool itself and especially its specific functionalities:
definition of the center of the MUSE field of view and orientation, selection of the VLT guide star for the different
modes of operations (Narrow Field Mode or Wide Field Mode, with or without AO). We will also show customized
displays for MUSE (zoom on specific area, help with MUSE mosaïcing and generic offsets, finding charts …).
This poster paper presents the analysis, the design, and a first prototype of the Optimized Slits Positioner Software, a part of the EMIR Observing Program Manager System (EOPMS). EMIR is a multi-slit near-IR spectrograph presently under development for the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC). This tool represents a crucial step for the success and efficiency of multi-object spectroscopy. Complex algorithms have been implemented to help the observer in designing and validating the mask sets, both automatically and interactively, through a user-friendly interface.
We present in this poster paper the Science Simulation aspects of the EMIR Observing Program Manager System (EOPMS). EMIR is a multi-slit near-IR spectrograph presently under development for the Gran Telescopio de Canarias (GTC). We present the scientific functionalities of the EOPMS and its ability to provide the user with the required information during the different observing phases. The exposure time calculator (ETC) and the Image Simulator (IS) will be described, focusing on some unique capabilities with respect to the presently available tools, such as the possibility of 2D spectra simulation and realistic 1D extraction.