An array of active photonic devices is fabricated in unison after a heterogeneous integration process first metal-eutectically bonds these distinct materials as a distribution onto a silicon host wafer. The patterning out of heterogeneous materials followed by the formation of all photonic devices allows for wide-area fine-alignment without the need for discrete die alignment or placement. The integration process is designed as a CMOS-compatible, scalable method for bringing together distinct III-V epitaxial structures and optical-waveguiding epitaxial structures, demonstrating the capabilities of forming a multi-chip layer of photonic materials. Integrated GaAs-based vertical light-emitting transistors (LET) are designed and fabricated as the active devices whose third electrical terminal provides an electrical interconnect and thermal dissipation path to the silicon host wafer. The performance of these devices as both electrical transistors and spontaneous-emission optical devices is compared to their monolithically-integrated counterparts to investigate improvements in device characteristics when integrated onto silicon. The fabrication methods are modified and optimized for thin-film transferred materials and are then extended to transistor laser (TL) fabrication. Passive waveguiding structures are designed and simulated for coupling light from the active devices, and their fabrication scheme is presented such that it can be similarly performed with transferred materials. Work toward the demonstration of integrated transistor lasers is shown to represent progress toward an electronic-photonic circuit network. The combination of heterogeneous integration with three-terminal photonic structures enables an elegant solution to both packaging and signal interconnect constraints for the implementation of photonic logic in silicon photonics systems.
Approaches are demonstrated that enable mobile devices, such as smartphones, to function as spectrophotometers with equivalent performance to laboratory instruments for measuring any diagnostic test that generates a colored liquid, fluorescent liquid, or colored solid surface. We envision mobile health diagnostic applications in which smartphone integrated measurement of point-of-care assays enables smart service systems for efficiently connecting patients with health care providers and other health services. A key to this capability is to offer valid tests that are equivalent to those performed in the laboratory by utilizing the same reagents, experimental controls, and calibration standards as conventional assays.