We describe the design of a new CCD system delivered to the Automated Patrol Telescope at Siding Springs NSW
Australia operated by UNSW. A very fast beam (f/1) with a mosaic of two MITLL CCID-34 detectors placed only 1
mm behind the field flattener which also serves as the dewar window, have called for innovative engineering solutions.
This paper describes the design and procedure of the field-flattener mounting, differential screw adjustable detector
mount and dewar suspension on the external ring providing tip/tilt and focus adjustment.
AAOmega is the new spectrograph for the 2dF fibre-positioning system on the Anglo-Australian Telescope. It is a bench-mounted, double-beamed design, using volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings and articulating cameras. It is fed by 392 fibres from either of the two 2dF field plates, or by the 512 fibre SPIRAL integral field unit (IFU) at Cassegrain focus. Wavelength coverage is 370 to 950nm and spectral resolution 1,000-8,000 in multi-Object mode, or 1,500-10,000 in IFU mode. Multi-object mode was commissioned in January 2006 and the IFU system will be commissioned in June 2006.
The spectrograph is located off the telescope in a thermally isolated room and the 2dF fibres have been replaced by new 38m broadband fibres. Despite the increased fibre length, we have achieved a large increase in throughput by use of VPH gratings, more efficient coatings and new detectors - amounting to a factor of at least 2 in the red. The number of spectral resolution elements and the maximum resolution are both more than doubled, and the stability is an order of magnitude better.
The spectrograph comprises: an f/3.15 Schmidt collimator, incorporating a dichroic beam-splitter; interchangeable VPH gratings; and articulating red and blue f/1.3 Schmidt cameras. Pupil size is 190mm, determined by the competing demands of cost, obstruction losses, and maximum resolution. A full suite of VPH gratings has been provided to cover resolutions 1,000 to 7,500, and up to 10,000 at particular wavelengths.
The AAOmega project replaces the two 2dF spectrographs, which are mounted on the top end of the Anglo Australian Telescope, with a bench mounted double beam spectrograph covering 370 to 950nm. The 2dF positioner, field plate tumbler mechanism, and fiber retractors will be retained. The new spectrograph will be fed by 392 fibers from either of the two 2dF field plates, or by the 512 fiber Spiral integral field unit, located at the Cassegrain focus. New instrument control electronics has also been designed to drive the spectrograph.
Stability will be improved by locating the spectrograph off the telescope, but the 2df fibers must be extended to thirty-eight metres length. Despite this, using fibers with improved characteristics, increased pupil diameter, volume phase holographic (VPH) gratings with articulated cameras, and more efficient coatings on optics we achieve a minimum twofold increase in throughput. We will also fit larger (4k x 2k pixel) detectors.
The spectrograph comprises: a F/3.15 Schmidt collimator, incorporating a dichroic beamsplitter; interchangeable VPH gratings; and articulating red and blue F/1.3 Schmidt cameras. The beamsplitter may be exchanged with others which cut off at different wavelengths. A full suite of VPH gratings are provided to cover resolution to 8000.
The Anglo-Australian Observatory's (AAO's) FMOS-Echidna project is for the Fiber Multi-Object Spectroscopy system for the Subaru Telescope. It includes three parts: the 400-fiber positioning system, the focal plane imager (FPI) and the prime focus corrector. The Echidna positioner concept and the role of the AAO in the FMOS project have been described in previous SPIE proceedings. The many components for the system are now being manufactured, after prototype tests have demonstrated that the required performance will be achieved. In this paper, the techniques developed to overcome key mechanical and electronic engineering challenges for the positioner and the FPI are described. The major performance requirement is that all 400 science fiber cores and up to 14 guide fiber bundles are to be re-positioned to an accuracy of 10μm within 10 minutes. With the fast prime focus focal ratio, a close tolerance on the axial position of the fiber tips must also be held so efficiency does not suffer from de-focus. Positioning accuracy is controlled with the help of the FPI, which measures the positions of the fiber tips to an accuracy of a few μm and allows iterative positioning. Maintaining fiber tips sufficiently co-planar requires accurate control in the assembly of the several components that contribute to such errors. Assembly jigs have been developed and proven adequate for this purpose. Attaining high reliability in an assembly with many small components of disparate materials bonded together, including piezo ceramics, carbon fiber reinforced plastic, hardened steel, and electrical circuit boards, has entailed careful selection and application of cements and tightly controlled soldering for electrical connections.
IRIS2 is a near-infrared imager and spectrograph based on a HAWAII1 HgCdTe detector. It provides wide-field (7.7’×7.7’) imaging capabilities at 0.4486”/pixel sampling, long-slit spectroscopy at λ/Δλ≈2400 in each of the J, H and K passbands, and the ability to do multi-object spectroscopy in up to three masks. These multi-slit masks are laser cut, and have been manufactured for both traditional multiple slit work (≈20-40 objects in a 3’×7.4’ field-of-view), multiple slit work in narrow-band filters (≈100 objects in a 5’×7.4’ field-of-view), and micro-hole spectroscopy in narrow-band filters allowing the observation of ≈200 objects in a 5’×7.4’ field.
IRIS2, the infrared imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Anglo Australian Telescope, has been in service since October 2001.
IRIS2 incorporated many novel features, including multiple cryogenic multislit masks, a dual chambered vacuum vessel (the smaller chamber used to reduce thermal cycle time required to change sets of multislit masks), encoded cryogenic wheel drives with controlled backlash, a deflection compensating structure, and use of teflon impregnated hard anodizing for gear lubrication at low temperatures. Other noteworthy features were: swaged foil thermal link terminations, the pupil imager, the detector focus mechanism, phased getter cycling to prevent detector contamination, and a flow-through LN2 precooling system. The instrument control electronics was designed to allow accurate positioning of the internal mechanisms with minimal generation of heat. The detector controller was based on the AAO2 CCD controller, adapted for use on the HAWAII1 detector (1024 x 1024 pixels) and is achieving low noise and high performance.
We describe features of the instrument design, the problems encountered and the development work required to bring them into operation, and their performance in service.
The Fiber Multi-Object Spectrograph (FMOS) project is an Australia-Japan-UK collaboration to design and build a novel 400 fiber positioner feeding two near infrared spectrographs from the prime focus of the Subaru telescope. The project comprises several parts. Those under design and construction at the Anglo-Australian Observatory (AAO) are the piezoelectric actuator driven fiber positioner (Echidna), a wide field (30 arcmin) corrector and a focal plane imager (FPI) used for controlling the positioner and for field acquisition. This paper presents an overview of the AAO share of the FMOS project. It describes the technical infrastructure required to extend the single Echidna "spine" design to a fully functioning multi-fiber instrument, capable of complete field reconfiguration in less than ten minutes. The modular Echidna system is introduced, wherein the field of view is populated by 12 identical rectangular modules, each positioning 40 science fibers and 2 guide fiber bundles. This arrangement allows maintenance by exchanging modules and minimizes the difficulties of construction. The associated electronics hardware, in itself a significant challenge, includes a 23 layer PCB board, able to supply current to each piezoelectric element in the module. The FPI is a dual purpose imaging system translating in two coordinates and is located beneath the assembled modules. The FPI measures the spine positions as well as acquiring sky images for instrument calibration and for field acquisition. An overview of the software is included.
We describe the Ion-Ripple Laser as an advanced scheme for generating coherent radiation. A relativistic electron beam obligately propagating through an ion ripple excites electromagnetic radiation which is coupled to slow electrostatic waves with peak growth rate at the resonance frequency ω≈ 2λ<sup>2</sup><sub>O</sub>k<sub>w</sub>c via backward Raman scattering. This new scheme may provide novel tunable sources of coherent high-power radiation. By proper choice of device parameters, sources of microwaves, optical, and perhaps even x rays can be made. By employing fluid theory the dispersion relation for wave coupling is derived and used to calculate the radiation frequency and linear growth rate. The nonlinear saturation mechanism is due to trapping of the beam electrons by the ponderomotive potential. For an energetic electron beam, the peak growth rate is ω<sub>i</sub> = ω<sup>5/2</sup><sub>pe</sub>ε<sub>i</sub>sinθ/λ<sub>O</sub><sup>3/4</sup>(2k<sub>ω</sub>c)<sup>3/2</sup> and the efficiency is η= ω<sub>pe</sub>/(2k<sub>ω</sub>cλ<sub>O</sub><sup>3/2</sup>). A 1 2/2 D-PIC simulation code was developed to verify the ideas, scaling laws, and nonlinear mechanism. From the observed power spectrum, backward Raman scattering is show to be responsible for the radiation. The growth rates and efficiencies given by the simulation match the ones of theory for different wiggler wave lengths and beam λ. Both of them show a slow decrease with momentum spread. Momentum spread also broadens the radiation spectrum.
The development of the short pulse laser capabilities described in the first part of this conference provides
opportunities to study new phenomena in plasmas. Some phenomena that require laser pulses there are short
Cr (1) and relativistic I C 1) are described here including plasma wakefield excitation, relativistic
self-focusing of light, remote guiding of lasers in plasmas (without optical elements), harmonic generation, and
photon acceleration (frequency upshifting).
The paper concentrates on possible applications of plasmas to FELs and closely related radiation sources. The possibility of using intense longitudinal plasma oscillations as wigglers for FELs is assessed, and three methods of generating intense plasma waves are presented: one utilizes two intense laser beams of different frequencies, the other employs shining a laser on a plasma with a resonance layer, and the third uses the wake fields of charged bunches from a linear accelerator. It is also demonstrated that by using plasma beat-wave or plasma wake-field accelerators, bunches as short as a few microns can be produced. The possibility of matching the group velocity of the EM wave to the electron velocity is considered, and cyclotron autoresonance masers and ion-channel lasers are covered.