Cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy (XSTM) is developed for studying the interfaces of the complex
oxide heterostructures. Since most of the complex oxide materials have a perovskite structure, which does not have
cleavage plane, it posed an experimental challenge for utilizing STM on the fractured surfaces. A well-controlled method
for fracturing non-cleavable materials was developed by using the common subtrate: Nb-doped SrTiO3 (Nb:STO).
Through systematically studies on the control of the fracturing conditions, on the tip-sample interactions and on the
resulting fractured surfaces of Nb:STO, atomic flat terraces are routinely created and stable measurements are achieved.
By harnessing the well-controlled fracturing method and the well-controlled tip conditions to a thin film system,
La2/3Ca1/3MnO3/Nb:STO (LCMO/Nb:STO), XSTM as well as the ability of cross-sectional scanning tunneling
spectroscopy (XSTS) directly revealed the band diagram mapping across the interface. The novel developed, well-controlled
XSTM/S for the interfaces of complex oxide heterostructures opened a door for accurate determination of
local electronic properties across and at the interface.
By using X-ray resonant magnetic scattering, the correlation of magnetic domains taken vertically in a Co/Cr/Co magnetic trilayer can be statistically quantified as a function of applied magnetic field. From these scans and from element specific magnetic hysteresis loops, we can identify the presence of both interlayer anti-ferromagnetic exchange coupling and ferromagnetic dipolar coupling within the trilayer.