To assess cancer resection margins, post-operative histological diagnosis using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stained slides remains the gold standard due to the lack of effective intra-operative approaches. Wait times may be up to two weeks and subsequent treatments may be necessary. Therefore, we are motivated to introduce Chromophore Selective Multi-Wavelength Photoacoustic Remote Sensing, an all-optical, non-contact, reflection-mode, label-free approach to produce H&E-like images of human tissue. This work is a step towards in-situ imaging, rapid clinical assessment of tissue, and may permit future developments as a live intraoperative surgical microscope.
Surgery remains the primary method of care for multiple types of solid cancer. The goal of surgical oncology is to remove all tumorous tissue from the body. Frozen sectioning is commonly used during surgery to assess margin status. However, this method can be unreliable as the slides can be difficult to interpret. Using a recently reported imaging modality, Photoacoustic Remote Sensing (PARS), we present the first in human non-contact histology-like imaging in reflection mode. Cellular morphology alongside blood vessels are imaged in the human breast, gastrointestinal, and skin tissues. These images then compared with conventional hematoxylin and eosin-stained samples.