Quality control through real-time process improvement and on-line inspection has become a key element in establishing efficient production lines. Machine vision solutions to these quality control issues are becoming increasingly popular as machine vision systems become more cost effective. This paper discusses how a machine vision system is incorporated into a paper product production line to provide 100 percent inspection and real-time, process control feedback. Seven dimensional measurements are performed on an 8.5 by 11 inch, 3 ring binder divider sheet, to an accuracy within 0.002 inches. The vision system hardware engine is comprised of a standard, multimedia personal computer that is enhanced with two frame grabber boards and Sherlock software from Imaging Technology. Two progressive scan CCD cameras are used to provide high speed image acquisition and adequate image resolution. Using Microsoft Visual Basic, the operator is provided with a single, graphical user interface with real-time graphing of the measurement data. Visual Basic runs in the foreground, controlling the user interface, while Sherlock operates in the background, performing all the machine vision tasks. By viewing the real-time graphs generated in Visual Basic, the operator is able to make process improvements, in real time, at line sped sin excess of 200 sheets per minute.
We describe a 3-D monitor for the direct display of 3-D information. The general concept for this volumetric display is a fairly straightforward extension of a 2-D screen composed of an array of picture-elements, or `pixels.' Here, a 3-D stack of pixels (actually, volume-elements, or `voxels') that, when off, are completely transparent. When addressed, a voxel becomes optically active and emits light. In this way, a 3-D pattern may be directly built up from a set of activated voxels. In our prototypes built to date, we have made the voxels from a nugget of UV-curved optical resin doped with an organic dye. The void between voxels is filled with an index matching fluid formulated to eliminate ghost images due to Fresnel reflections off the voxel surfaces. Each voxel is addressed by an optical fiber that pipes light to the voxel. This optical energy pumps the embedded dye causing it to fluoresce at an appropriate color that depends on the choice of dye. The fibers emerge from the 3-D array of voxels and are addressed using a flat array of liquid crystals.
The possibility of achieving soft X-ray amplification by collisional recombination in a capillary discharge plasma is being investigated. The results of the soft X-ray spectroscopy study of carbon capillary plasmas excited by a 40 kV, 108 ns FWHM discharge are discussed. The first spectra corresponding to a fast 25 ns FWHM, 600 kV discharge are also reported.