The Navy recently began investing in the design of mission-specific payloads for the Small Tactical Unmanned Aircraft
System (STUAS). STUAS is a Tier II size UAS with a roughly 35 pound mission payload and a gimbaled general-purpose
electro optical/infrared (EO/IR) system. The EO/IR system is likely composed of a video camera in the visible,
a mid-wave infrared (MWIR) and/or a long-wave infrared (LWIR) for night operations, and an infrared marker and laser
Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT), in a series of SBIR efforts, has developed a modular, multi-channel
imaging system for deployment on airborne and UAV platforms. ACT's system, called EYE5, demonstrates how an
EO/IR system combined with an on-board, real-time processor can be tailored for specific applications to produce real-time
actionable data. The EYE5 sensor head and modular real-time processor descriptions are presented in this work.
Examples of the system's abilities in various Navy-relevant applications are reviewed.
Due to increased security concerns, the commitment to monitor and maintain security in the maritime environment is
increasingly a priority. A country's coast is the most vulnerable area for the incursion of illegal immigrants, terrorists
and contraband. This work illustrates the ability of a low-cost, light-weight, multi-spectral, multi-channel imaging
system to handle the environment and see under difficult marine conditions. The system and its implemented
detecting and tracking technologies should be organic to the maritime homeland security community for search and
rescue, fisheries, defense, and law enforcement. It is tailored for airborne and ship based platforms to detect, track
and monitor suspected objects (such as semi-submerged targets like marine mammals, vessels in distress, and drug
smugglers). In this system, automated detection and tracking technology is used to detect, classify and localize
potential threats or objects of interest within the imagery provided by the multi-spectral system. These algorithms
process the sensor data in real time, thereby providing immediate feedback when features of interest have been
detected. A supervised detection system based on Haar features and Cascade Classifiers is presented and results are
provided on real data. The system is shown to be extendable and reusable for a variety of different applications.
This paper describes an approach to utilize a multi-channel, multi-spectral electro-optic (EO) system for littoral zone
characterization. Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT) presents their EO sensor systems for the surf zone
environmental assessment and potential surf zone target detection. Specifically, an approach is presented to determine a
Surf Zone Index (SZI) from the multi-spectral EO sensor system. SZI provides a single quantitative value of the surf
zone conditions delivering an immediate understanding of the area and an assessment as to how well an airborne optical
system might perform in a mine countermeasures (MCM) operation. Utilizing consecutive frames of SZI images, ACT
is able to measure variability over time. A surf zone nomograph, which incorporates targets, sensor, and environmental
data, including the SZI to determine the environmental impact on system performance, is reviewed in this work. ACT's
electro-optical multi-channel, multi-spectral imaging system and test results are presented and discussed.
KEYWORDS: Image processing, Cameras, Imaging systems, Ocean optics, Detection and tracking algorithms, Oceanography, Global Positioning System, Signal to noise ratio, Electro optical systems, Algorithm development
This work presents an electro-optical multispectral capability that detects and monitors marine mammals. It is a
continuance of Whale Search Radar SBIR program funded by PMA-264 through NAVAIR. A lightweight, multispectral,
turreted imaging system is designed for airborne and ship based platforms to detect and monitor marine mammals. The
system tests were conducted over the Humpback whale breeding and calving area in Maui, Hawaii. The results of the
tests and the system description are presented. The development of an automatic whale detection algorithm is discussed
as well as methodology used to turn raw survey data into quantifiable data products.
Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT) is using a multi-spectral, multi-channel imaging system to
detect and monitor marine mammals. The system, designed with US Navy funding, is intended to monitor mammals on
US Navy submarine training ranges prior to and during Navy active acoustic training activities. ACT has conducted
system tests and data collection activities at the St. Lawrence Seaway (Quebec, Canada), at Ma'alaea Bay (Maui,
Hawaii), and from the Coronado Bay Bridge (San Diego, California). A description of the imaging system and the
results of the data collections are discussed and presented.
Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC has demonstrated the use of multi-channel imaging systems in a variety of
applications. These systems are composed of multiple cameras or 'channels', each of which can be coupled with spectral
filters, polarization analyzers, or unique optics (e.g. for field of view (FOV) or aperture adjustments). The channel
content is designed specifically for the extraction of information and/or the detection of targets. Airborne data collects
have been made over forest and maritime environments for the detection of various targets. The results of these collects
are discussed and analyzed. Of particular concern is how channel content is chosen in each environment and for each
Multispectral visible and infrared observations of various species of whales were made in the St. Lawrence Seaway near Quebec, Canada and Papawai Point in Maui, Hawaii. The Multi-mission Adaptable Narrowband Imaging System (MANTIS) was deployed in two configurations: airborne looking down, and bluff mounted looking at low-grazing angles. An Infrared (IR) sensor was also deployed in the bluff mounted configuration. Detections of marine mammals were made with these systems of submerged mammals and surface mammals at ranges up to 8 miles. Automatic detection algorithms are being explored to detect, track and monitor the behavior of individuals and pods of whales. This effort is part of a United States Navy effort to insure that marine mammals are not injured during the testing of the US Navy's acoustic Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) systems.
Proc. SPIE. 6946, Airborne Intelligence, Surveillance, Reconnaissance (ISR) Systems and Applications V
KEYWORDS: Sensors, Algorithm development, Data acquisition, Detection and tracking algorithms, Multispectral imaging, Telecommunications, Image processing, Antennas, Data processing, Data communications
Radiance Technologies, Inc. has tested and demonstrated real-time collection and on-board processing of Multispectral
Imagery (MSI). Further, the test and demonstration consisted of a real-time downlink from the aircraft to the ground
station and real-time display of the processed data product. The multispectral imagery was collected with a low-cost,
low-profile MSI sensor, MANTIS-3T, from PAR Government Systems. The data product was created from output of a
novel spectral algorithm combination that increases the probability of detection and decreases the false alarm rates for
specific objects of interest. The display product was a compressed true color image in which the detected objects were
delineated with red pixels. A description of the end-to-end solution, issues encountered as well as their resolution, and
results will be discussed.
This note presents an airborne spectral imaging system and methodology used to detect, track and monitor marine
mammal populations. The system is a four band multispectral imaging system using spectral bands tailored for maritime
imaging. This low cost, low volume, imaging sensor can be deployed on either a small unmanned air vehicle (UAV) or
any other cost efficient aircraft. Results of recent multispectral data collects over marine mammals in St. Lawrence
Seaway are presented. Species present included beluga whales as well as various species of larger baleen whales.
Narrow band polarization measurements were taken from a bridge in San Diego Harbor using the Advanced Coherent
Technologies Multi-mission Adaptable Narrowband Imaging Spectrometer (MANTIS) multichannel imaging system.
MANTIS was capable of simultaneously collecting four channels of imagery through a narrowband green (532 nm) filter
together with linear polarizers oriented at 0, 45, 90, and 135 degrees. This configuration enabled the collection of the
first three Stokes Vector elements. The data is being gathered to explore methods of calculating the sea surface Mueller
Matrix. Models, methods, and measurements are presented. Of specific interest is the deviation of the modeled data
from the measured data and its causes. The data and a model are used to estimate the contribution of upwelled polarized
PAR Government Systems Corporation (PAR) with Advanced Coherent Technologies, LLC (ACT) has developed
affordable, narrow-band polarimetry sensor hardware and software based upon the PAR Mission Adaptable Narrowband
Tunable Imaging Sensor (MANTIS). The sensor has been deployed in multiple environments. Polarimetric imagery of
the clear blue sky and the sea surface has been collected. In addition, a significant amount of calibration data has been
collected to correctly calibrate the sensor for real-time Stokes Vector imaging. Data collected with the MANTIS
polarization sensor has been compared to modeled data. The sensor hardware and software is described and some
representative collected calibration data are presented and compared to a developing model.
Surf zone measurements and airborne imagery were collected off North Carolina. The data and a surf zone index based
on the properties of water clarity, waves, and foam were used to predict imager performance for objects of varying
reflectivity and contrast.
PAR Government Systems Corporation (PAR) has developed a low-cost, low-weight, low-profile, mission-adaptable multispectral imaging system utilizing mass-produced commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components, for the purpose of providing continuous real-time multispectral data collection for mine counter measures (MCM), intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance study applications aboard low-cost, light manned and unmanned aircraft platforms. The mission adaptable narrowband tunable imaging system (MANTIS) has been integrated into a small 5" turret currently employed on a variety of small UAV platforms. The turreted MANTIS (MANTIS-3T) provides remote operator control to adjust gain, exposure, and pointing commands. The MANTIS-3T sensor will be used to collect imagery over calibration and test targets. Integration strategies and planned data collections are presented.
Over the past year an index has been defined which quantifies the surf zone with respect to an electro-optical (EO) system’s ability to find targets. The purpose of this index is to both normalize the EO Mine Counter Measure (MCM) systems performance expectations to the environment in which it is tested and to assess the value of its performance in an operational environment. For example, if a given system has a Probability of Detection (P<sub>D</sub>) requirement of 90% in a clear water surf zone and is tested in murky waters the surf zone index of the murky water is used to determine what P<sub>D</sub> is required in the murky water to yield the 90% P<sub>D</sub> clear water requirement. The surf zone index is defined in this paper and expanded from the deterministic contrast transmittance as reported in earlier papers to a probabilistic approach. Examples of how to measure the index using readily available low cost spectral imagers such as PAR Government Systems Corporation’s Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Spectrometer (MANTIS) system are given. Finally, the surf zone index usage is discussed and demonstrated.
A series of low cost, light weight, mission-adaptable multispectral imaging spectrometers have been developed by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC), utilizing mass-produced commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The developed MANTIS sensors have been used to collect continuous multispectral data for mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) applications aboard low cost manned aircraft platforms. Each MANTIS system images four spectral bands simultaneously. The four user-selectable spectral filters are inserted into an easily accessible filter cartridge supporting pre-flight filter selection. Data acquisition is accomplished by COTS frame grabbers installed in a Pentium based personal computer and all digitized data is written in real-time to a redundant array of independent disks (RAID). PGSC has also developed a graphical user interface providing control, display and recording options. The MANTIS approach and simple design lends itself to low-cost modifications and improvements.
Airborne multispectral imagery was collected over various targets on the beach and in the water in an attempt to characterize the surf zone environment with respect to electro-optical system capabilities and to assess the utility of very low cost, small multispectral systems in mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications. The data was collected by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC) at the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility at Duck North Carolina and on the beaches of Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base in Southern California. PGSC flew the first two of its MANTIS (Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Sensor) systems. Both MANTIS systems were flown in an IR - red - green - blue (700, 600, 550, 480 nm) configuration from altitudes ranging from 200 to 700 meters. Data collected has been lightly analyzed and a surf zone index (SZI) defined and calculated. This index allows mine hunting system performance measurements in the surf zone to be normalized by environmental conditions. The SZI takes into account water clarity, wave energy, and foam persistence.
Multispectral and hyperspectral sensors are being used for remote sensing and imaging of ocean waters. Many applications require the compression of hyperspectral data to achieve real-time transmission or exploitation. Hyperspectral data compression or reduction has been accomplished using techniques based upon principal component analysis or linear unmixing. Alternatively, data compression (reduction) may be performed by band selection, or band selection may be preliminary to either of the other compression techniques. Band selection also has implications for sensor design and the stability of estimates of processing parameters. In this study, we address the question of which bands are the most efficacious for imaging submerged objects, such as whales, using an anomaly detector, or a matched filter. Bands are selected by optimizing a detection criterion subject to a constraint on the number of bands. The technique is applied to give hyperspectral data sets, and the optimum bandwidths and centers are determined. The loss in performance from selecting reduced numbers of bands is tabulated and the need for adaptively selecting reduced numbers of bands is demonstrated.
A model for prediction of visibility in nearshore waters must estimate inherent optical properties directly from spatially and temporally varying concentrations of optically important organic and inorganic materials. Models which describe these concentrations utilize both theoretical and empirical relationships. The estimation of coastal underwater visibility is based on Mie scattering calculations combined with laboratory measurements to obtain a set of calibration constants used to calculate the inherent optical properties from concentrations of generic water column constituents. These constituents are presently limited to sediments, phytoplankton and colored dissolved organic materials. Number concentrations of cells and sediment particles, normally provided by water constituent source models, were measured in the laboratory. These measurements were taken over a range of sediment and phytoplankton concentrations. Modeled scattering and absorption estimates are compared with laboratory data and data from one coastal station. The optical modeling procedures provide acceptable estimates over the range of available data, but begin to deviate as the proportion of large particles increases in very turbid waters.
Measurements were made of the spread of a gaussian argon ion (489 nm) laser beam as it passed through up to 20 cm of
sea ice grown in a water tank at air temperatures of -15, -25, and -35°C. These growth temperatures were selected to cover
a range of ±10°C about the sea ice eutectic temperature of T<sub>eut</sub> = -21.2°C. The Beam Spread Function (BSF) and the
transform related Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) were obtained for increasing thicknesses of ice grown at these
temperatures. In general the BSF could be represented as the sum of a gaussian distribution of narrow width and large
amplitude due to multiple narrow angle forward scattering and a smaller wider spread associated with a growing diffuse
light field from multiple wider angle scattered light. For ice grown at all temperatures rms spread was found to follow a 3/2
power law with ice thickness. The rms spread was found to be less in the ice grown at the colder temperatures due to
increased attenuation with the smaller ice crystal size.