Polymeric multimode waveguides are of particular interest for optical interconnections in short-reach data links. In some applications, for example in space-borne systems, the use of advanced materials with outstanding performance in extreme environments is required (temperature and radiation). In this paper therefore, we present novel siloxane polymers suitable for these applications. The materials are used to form straight, 90° bent and spiral polymer waveguides by low-cost conventional photolithographic techniques on FR4 substrates. The samples have been tested to investigate their propagation characteristics and demonstrate their potential for high-speed data links. Overall, there is strong evidence that these multimode waveguides can be successfully employed as high-speed short-reach data links. Their excellent thermal properties, their low cost and the simple fabrication process indicate their suitability for a wide range of space applications.
The analog modulation performance in terms of linearity and modulation of IEEE 802.11g signals with carrier
frequencies of up to 20GHz is reported. An oxide aperture Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) with a low
current density and 20GHz 3dB bandwidth is shown to operate at 70°C with an SFDR better than 80dB/Hz2/3 upto
20GHz. This is only a slight reduction in performance over the behavior at 20°C. A novel integrated Electro-Optically
Modulated (EOM) VCSEL is shown to offer a bandwidth of 18GHz with better performance in-terms of SFDR.
However it currently suffers greater temperature dependence and lower optical output power.
Understanding the nature of single-photon propagation and any differences to the classical multi-photon regime is essential to better use the escalating number of single-photon technologies. Novel techniques and results are reported that demonstrate a consistent ability to measure the classical group velocity in an optical fiber to an accuracy in the time-offlight around ±0.2 ns in 30,000 ns. Identical techniques are then applied to single photons to determine their velocity and assess if there is any evidence that Schrödinger frequencies (N+1/2)ω alter the ω-k dispersion diagram. The evidence suggests that photons in a circular fiber show no additional dispersion but travel at the classical group velocity.
We report the analysis and application of uncooled, directly-modulated high-speed DFB lasers with emphasis on their analogue transmission performance. Fibre-optic links employing such lasers are shown to meet the most stringent requirements of analogue systems at both high carrier frequencies and high temperatures. Spurious-free dynamic ranges (SFDR) exceeding 100dB×Hz2/3 and 90dB×Hz2/3 and input third-order intercept points (IIP3) above 20dBm and 18dBm are reported for carrier frequencies up to 20GHz at 25°C and up to 10GHz at 85°C, respectively. The error-vector magnitude (EVM) for a 256-QAM modulated signal transmitted over 15km of SMF remains below 1.9% for carrier frequencies of both 2GHz and 5GHz for all measured temperatures. The link performance is assessed by using 3GPP W-CDMA, IEEE 802.11a and IEEE 802.11b signals. In all cases the EVM remains within the standard specification, for fibre-optic link lengths of up to 10km and laser operating temperatures of up to 70°C. Finally, an IEEE 802.11b WLAN demonstrator is presented, allowing antenna remoting over up to 1000m of 62.5/125μm MMF.