With the goal of landing crewed missions on the Moon and Mars in the next decade, mineral deposits on asteroids represent a potentially important resource for emerging space colonies. Deep-space missions can contemplate in-situ resource utilization, should suitable compounds be present. A necessary step for eventual resource exploitation is characterization of material abundances within candidate asteroids. Mineral maps could be generated by deploying CubeSat spacecraft to targeted asteroids, using Remote Laser Evaporative Molecular Absorption (R-LEMA) spectroscopy. In the R-LEMA scheme, a directed energy beam is used to probe molecular composition of a remote target. The laser-heated spot serves as a high-temperature blackbody source and ejected molecules create a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Molecular composition is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the plume. Laboratory experiments allow comparison between predicted and measured profiles. Preliminary experiments described in this paper make use of solid-state samples so as to develop a library of spectra for comparison to future spectra obtained from samples in the gas phase.
To probe the molecular composition of a remote target, a laser is directed at a spot on the target, where melting and evaporation occur. The heated spot serves as a high-temperature blackbody source, and the ejected substance creates a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Bulk molecular composition of the surface material is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected plume. The proposed method is distinct from current stand-off approaches to composition analysis, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes target material and observes emission spectra to determine bulk atomic composition. Initial simulations of absorption profiles based on theoretical models show great promise for the proposed method. This paper compares simulated spectral profiles with results of preliminary laboratory experiments. A sample is placed in an evacuated space, which is situated within the beam line of a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. A laser beam is directed at the sample through an optical window in the front of the vacuum space. As the sample is heated, and evaporation begins, the FTIR beam passes through the molecular plume, via IR windows in the sidewalls of the evacuated space. Sample targets, such as basalt, are tested and compared to the theoretically predicted spectra.
Surface material on a remote target can be characterized by using a spectrometer to view a laser-heated spot on the target surface through the plume of ejected material. The concept is described as Remote Laser Evaporative Molecular Absorption (R-LEMA) spectroscopy.<sup>1,2</sup> The proposed method is distinct from current stand-off approaches to composition analysis, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes target material and observes emission spectra to determine bulk atomic composition. Initial simulations of R-LEMA absorption profiles based on theoretical models show great promise for the proposed method. This paper describes an experimental setup being developed to acquire R-LEMA spectra in the laboratory under controlled conditions that will allow comparison to theoretically predicted spectral profiles. A sample is placed in a vacuum space; a laser beam is directed at the sample, through an optical window. As the sample is heated, and evaporation begins, thermal emission from the heated spot passes through the molecular plume, then out of the vacuum space via infrared windows. The thermal emission is directed into a FT-IR spectrometer, which is equipped with a source-brightness comparator to correct for changes in source intensity during a scan. Targets of known composition are tested and laboratory measurements are compared to the theoretically predicted spectra. Laboratory spectra for composite targets are also presented, including terrestrial rocks and asteroid regolith simulant.
Deep space exploration will require laser communication systems optimized for cost, size, weight, and power. To improve these parameters, our group has been developing a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) based on indium phosphide for optical pulse position modulation (PPM). A field-programmable gate array (FPGA) was programmed to serve as a dedicated driver for the PIC. The FPGA is capable of generating 2-ary to 4096-ary PPM with a slot clock rate up to 700 MHz.
Asteroids impact Earth daily. Some, like the Chelyabinsk Meteor that exploded over Siberia in 2013, can cause massive disruption to human enterprise (~$33M in damages) and thousands of injuries. To mitigate this potentially disastrous threat, our group has posited a phased laser array which would be used to direct energy towards approaching asteroids or other dangerous near Earth objects (NEOs). The laser array would ablate the NEO’s surface, inducing mass ejection, that would then cause a reactant thrust on the NEO in the opposite direction of the laser. To verify this concept in a laboratory environment, this work quantitatively measured the thrust induced on basalt and other asteroid regolith simulant by a 350W laser array. By placing the sample target on a torsion balance and measuring its angle of deflection under ablation, it is possible to calculate the induced thrust per unit watt. This angular change is measured with a secondary laser that reflects off of the torsion balance into an optical position sensor. By comparing this paper’s experimental results with prior theoretical and computational work, we can surmise a theoretical relationship between NEO size and required laser power for future NEO deflection missions.
Directed energy is envisioned to drive wafer-scale spacecraft to relativistic speeds. Spacecraft propulsion is provided by a large array of lasers, either in Earth orbit or stationed on the ground. The directed-energy beam is focused on the spacecraft sail, and momentum from photons in the laser beam is transferred to the spacecraft as the beam reflects off of the sail. In order for the beam to be concentrated on the spacecraft, precise phase control of all the elements across the laser array will be required. Any phase misalignments within the array will give rise to pointing fluctuations and flux asymmetry in the beam, necessitating creative approaches to spacecraft stability and beam following. In order to simulate spacecraft acceleration using an array of phase-locked lasers, a near field intensity model of the laser array is required. This paper describes a light propagation model that can be used to calculate intensity patterns for the near-field diffraction of a phased array. The model is based on the combination of complex frequencies from an array of emitters as the beams from each emitter strike a target surface. Ray-tracing geometry is used to determine the distance from each point on an emitter optical surface to each point on the target surface, and the distance is used to determine the phase contribution. Simulations are presented that explore the effects of fixed and time-varying phase mis-alignments on beam pointing, beam intensity and focusing characteristics.
We describe a novel method for probing bulk molecular and atomic composition of solid targets from a distant vantage. A laser is used to melt and vaporize a spot on the target. With sufficient flux, the spot temperature rises rapidly, and evaporation of surface materials occurs. The melted spot creates a high-temperature blackbody source, and ejected material creates a plume of surface materials in front of the spot. Molecular and atomic absorption occurs as the blackbody radiation passes through the ejected plume. Bulk molecular and atomic composition of the surface material is investigated by using a spectrometer to view the heated spot through the ejected plume. The proposed method is distinct from current stand-off approaches to composition analysis, such as Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), which atomizes and ionizes target material and observes emission spectra to determine bulk atomic composition. Initial simulations of absorption profiles with laser heating show great promise for Remote Laser-Evaporative Molecular Absorption (R-LEMA) spectroscopy. The method is well-suited for exploration of cold solar system targets—asteroids, comets, planets, moons—such as from a spacecraft orbiting the target. Spatial composition maps could be created by scanning the surface. Applying the beam to a single spot continuously produces a borehole or trench, and shallow subsurface composition profiling is possible. This paper describes system concepts for implementing the proposed method to probe the bulk molecular composition of an asteroid from an orbiting spacecraft, including laser array, photovoltaic power, heating and ablation, plume characteristics, absorption, spectrometry and data management.
Comets and Asteroids are viable threats to our planet; if these space rocks are smaller than 25 meters, they burn up in the atmosphere, but if they are wider than 25 meters they can cause damage to the impact area. Anything more than one to two kilometers can have worldwide effects, furthermore a mile-wide asteroid travelling at 30,000 miles per hour has the energy equal to a megaton bomb and is very likely to wipe out most of the life on Earth. Residents near Chelyabinsk, Russia experienced the detrimental effects of a collision with a Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) on 15 February 2013 as a ~20 m object penetrated the atmosphere above that city. The effective yield from this object was approximately 1/2 Megaton TNT equivalent (Mt), or that of a large strategic warhead. The 1908 Tunguska event, also over Russia, is estimated to have had a yield of approximately 15 Mt and had the potential to kill millions of people had it come down over a large city<sup>1</sup>. In the face of such danger a planetary defense system is necessary and this paper proposes a design for such a system. DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) is a phased array laser system that can be used to oblate, deflect and de-spin asteroids and comets.
We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DE-STAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR and DE-STARLITE are directed energy “stand-off” and “stand-on” programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid’s orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid. In the DESTAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection “propellant”. This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds a common space target sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m<sup>2</sup> , which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/W<sub>optical</sub>, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/W<sub>optical</sub> and then degrade this with an optical “encircled energy” efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/W<sub>optical</sub> in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/W<sub>absorbed</sub> as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed. Results vary depending on the material tested and are limited to measurements of 1 axis, so further tests must be performed.
For interstellar missions, directed energy is envisioned to drive wafer-scale spacecraft to relativistic speeds. Spacecraft propulsion is provided by a large array of phase-locked lasers, either in Earth orbit or stationed on the ground. The directed-energy beam is focused on the spacecraft, which includes a reflective sail that propels the craft by reflecting the beam. Fluctuations and asymmetry in the beam will create rotational forces on the sail, so the sail geometry must possess an inherent, passive stabilizing effect. A hyperboloid shape is proposed, since changes in the incident beam angle due to yaw will passively counteract rotational forces. This paper explores passive stability properties of a hyperboloid reflector being bombarded by directed-energy beam. A 2D cross-section is analyzed for stability under simulated asymmetric loads. Passive stabilization is confirmed over a range of asymmetries. Realistic values of radiation pressure magnitude are drawn from the physics of light-mirror interaction. Estimates of beam asymmetry are drawn from optical modeling of a laser array far-field intensity using fixed and stochastic phase perturbations. A 3D multi-physics model is presented, using boundary conditions and forcing terms derived from beam simulations and lightmirror interaction models. The question of optimal sail geometry can be pursued, using concepts developed for the baseline hyperboloid. For example, higher curvature of the hyperboloid increases stability, but reduces effective thrust. A hyperboloid sail could be optimized by seeking the minimum curvature that is stable over the expected range of beam asymmetries.
Arrays of phase-locked lasers are envisioned for planetary defense and exploration systems. High-energy beams focused on a threatening asteroid evaporate surface material, creating a reactionary thrust that alters the asteroid’s orbit. The same system could be used to probe an asteroid’s composition, to search for unknown asteroids, and to propel interplanetary and interstellar spacecraft. Phased-array designs are capable of producing high beam intensity, and allow beam steering and beam profile manipulation. Modular designs allow ongoing addition of emitter elements to a growing array. This paper discusses pointing control for extensible laser arrays. Rough pointing is determined by spacecraft attitude control. Lateral movement of the laser emitter tips behind the optical elements provides intermediate pointing adjustment for individual array elements and beam steering. Precision beam steering and beam formation is accomplished by coordinated phase modulation across the array. Added cells are incorporated into the phase control scheme by precise alignment to local mechanical datums using fast, optical relative position sensors. Infrared target sensors are also positioned within the datum scheme, and provide information about the target vector relative to datum coordinates at each emitter. Multiple target sensors allow refined determination of the target normal plane, providing information to the phase controller for each emitter. As emitters and sensors are added, local position data allows accurate prediction of the relative global position of emitters across the array, providing additional constraints to the phase controllers. Mechanical design and associated phase control that is scalable for target distance and number of emitters is presented.
A phased array operates by modulating the phases of several signals, allowing electronic control over the locations that these signals interfere constructively or destructively, allowing the beam to be steered. A space-based laser phased array, called the Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation (DE-STAR) has previously been posited by our group for a number of uses, from planetary defense to relativistic propulsion of small probes. Here we propose using the same basic system topology as a receiver rather than a transmitter. All of the components in the system, excluding the laser, are bidirectional. Rather than each elements transmitting laser light, they would instead receive light, which will then be combined to create an interference pattern that can be imaged onto a focal plane. The Laser Array Space Telescope (LAST) uses most of the same components and metrology as DE-STAR and could thus be integrated into a singular system, allowing both transmit and receive modes. This paper discusses the possible applications of this system from laser communications to astrophysics.
Lasers are commonly used in high-precision measurement and profiling systems. Some laser measurement systems are based on interferometry principles, and others are based on active triangulation, depending on requirements of the application. This paper describes an active triangulation laser measurement system for a specific application wherein the relative position of two fixed, rigid mechanical components is to be measured dynamically with high precision in six degrees of freedom (DOF). Potential applications include optical systems with feedback to control for mechanical vibration, such as target acquisition devices with multiple focal planes. The method uses an array of several laser emitters mounted on one component. The lasers are directed at a reflective surface on the second component. The reflective surface consists of a piecewise-planar pattern such as a pyramid, or more generally a curved reflective surface such as a hyperbolic paraboloid. The reflected spots are sensed at 2-dimensional photodiode arrays on the emitter component. Changes in the relative position of the emitter component and reflective surface will shift the location of the reflected spots within photodiode arrays. Relative motion in any degree of freedom produces independent shifts in the reflected spot locations, allowing full six-DOF relative position determination between the two component positions. Response time of the sensor is limited by the read-out rate of the photodiode arrays. Algorithms are given for position determination with limits on uncertainty and sensitivity, based on laser and spot-sensor characteristics, and assuming regular surfaces. Additional uncertainty analysis is achievable for surface irregularities based on calibration data.
We report on laboratory studies of the effectiveness of directed energy planetary defense as a part of the DESTAR (Directed Energy System for Targeting of Asteroids and exploRation) program. DE-STAR  and DE-STARLITE  are directed energy "stand-off" and "stand-on" programs, respectively. These systems consist of a modular array of kilowatt-class lasers powered by photovoltaics, and are capable of heating a spot on the surface of an asteroid to the point of vaporization. Mass ejection, as a plume of evaporated material, creates a reactionary thrust capable of diverting the asteroid’s orbit. In a series of papers, we have developed a theoretical basis and described numerical simulations for determining the thrust produced by material evaporating from the surface of an asteroid . In the DE-STAR concept, the asteroid itself is used as the deflection "propellant". This study presents results of experiments designed to measure the thrust created by evaporation from a laser directed energy spot. We constructed a vacuum chamber to simulate space conditions, and installed a torsion balance that holds an "asteroid" sample. The sample is illuminated with a fiber array laser with flux levels up to 60 MW/m2 which allows us to simulate a mission level flux but on a small scale. We use a separate laser as well as a position sensitive centroid detector to readout the angular motion of the torsion balance and can thus determine the thrust. We compare the measured thrust to the models. Our theoretical models indicate a coupling coefficient well in excess of 100 μN/Woptical, though we assume a more conservative value of 80 μN/Woptical and then degrade this with an optical "encircled energy" efficiency of 0.75 to 60 μN/Woptical in our deflection modeling. Our measurements discussed here yield about 45 μN/Wabsorbed as a reasonable lower limit to the thrust per optical watt absorbed.
Asteroids that threaten Earth could be deflected from their orbits using directed energy to vaporize the surface, because the ejected plume creates a reaction thrust that alters the asteroid’s trajectory. One concern regarding directed energy deflection is the rotation of the asteroid, as this will reduce the average thrust magnitude and modify the thrust direction. Flux levels required to evaporate surface material depend on surface material composition and albedo, thermal, and bulk mechanical properties of the asteroid, and rotation rate. The observed distribution of asteroid rotation rates is used, along with an estimated range of material and mechanical properties, as input to a 3D thermal-physical model to calculate the resultant thrust vector. The model uses a directed energy beam, striking the surface of a rotating sphere with specified material properties, beam profile, and rotation rate. The model calculates thermal changes in the sphere, including vaporization and mass ejection of the target material. The amount of vaporization is used to determine a thrust magnitude that is normal to the surface at each point on the sphere. As the object rotates beneath the beam, vaporization decreases, as the temperature drops and causes both a phase shift and magnitude decrease in the average thrust vector. A surface integral is calculated to determine the thrust vector, at each point in time, producing a 4D analytical model of the expected thrust profile for rotating objects.
In the nearly 60 years of spaceflight we have accomplished wonderful feats of exploration and shown the incredible spirit of the human drive to explore and understand our universe. Yet in those 60 years we have barely left our solar system with the Voyager 1 spacecraft launched in 1977 finally leaving the solar system after 37 years of flight at a speed of 17 km/s or less than 0.006% the speed of light. As remarkable as this is, we will never reach even the nearest stars with our current propulsion technology in even 10 millennium. We have to radically rethink our strategy or give up our dreams of reaching the stars, or wait for technology that does not exist. While we all dream of human spaceflight to the stars in a way romanticized in books and movies, it is not within our power to do so, nor it is clear that this is the path we should choose. We posit a technological path forward, that while not simple; it is within our technological reach. We propose a roadmap to a program that will lead to sending relativistic probes to the nearest stars and will open up a vast array of possibilities of flight both within our solar system and far beyond. Spacecraft from gram level complete spacecraft on a wafer (“wafer sats”) that reach more than ¼ c and reach the nearest star in 15 years to spacecraft with masses more than 10<sup>5</sup> kg (100 tons) that can reach speeds of near 1000 km/s such systems can be propelled to speeds currently unimaginable with our existing propulsion technologies. To do so requires a fundamental change in our thinking of both propulsion and in many cases what a spacecraft is. In addition to larger spacecraft, some capable of transporting humans, we consider functional spacecraft on a wafer, including integrated optical communications, optical systems and sensors combined with directed energy propulsion. Since “at home” the costs can be amortized over a very large number of missions. The human factor of exploring the nearest stars and exo-planets would be a profound voyage for humanity, one whose non-scientific implications would be enormous. It is time to begin this inevitable journey beyond our home.