The goal is to gain additional insight into physical mechanisms and the role of microstructure on the formation of ohmic contacts and the reduction of contact resistance. We have measured a decreasing film resistivity in the vertical direction with increasing thickness of pulsed-laser deposited ZnO and IGZO. As the ZnO thickness increases from 122 nm to 441 nm, a reduction in resistivity from 3.29 Ω-cm to 0.364 Ω-cm occurred. The IGZO resistivity changes from 72.4 Ω-cm to 0.642 Ω-cm as the film is increased from 108nm to 219 nm. In the ZnO, the size of nanocolumnar grains increase with thickness resulting in fewer grain boundaries, and in the amorphous IGZO, the thicker region exhibits tunnel-like artifacts which may contribute to the reduced resistivity.
The breadth of circuit fabrication opportunities enabled by metal-oxide thin-film transistors (MO-TFTs) is unprecedented. Large-area deposition techniques and high electron mobility are behind their adoption in the display industry, and substrate agnosticism and low process temperatures enabled the present wave of flexible electronics research. Reports of circuits involving complementaryMO-TFTs, oxide-organic hybrid combinations, and even MO-TFTs integrated onto Si LSI back end of line interconnects demonstrate this technology’s utility in 2D and 3D monolithic heterogeneous integration (HI). In addition to a brief literature review focused on functional HI between MO-TFTs and a variety of dissimilar active devices, we share progress toward integrating MO-TFTs with compound semiconductor devices, namely GaN HEMTs. A monolithically integrated cascode topology was used to couple a HEMT’s >200 V breakdown characteristic with the gate driving characteristic of an IGZO TFT, effectively shifting the HEMT threshold voltage from -3 V to +1 V.