The Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (AdvACT) is an upgraded instrument for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, which uses transition-edge sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. We review the integration and characterization of the final polarimeter array, which is the low frequency (LF) array, consisting of 292 TES bolometers observing in two bands centered at 27 GHz and 39 GHz. This array is sensitive to synchrotron radiation from our galaxy as well as to the CMB, and complements the AdvACT arrays operating at 90, 150 and 230 GHz to provide robust detection and removal of foreground contamination. We present detector parameters for the LF array measured in the lab, including saturation powers, critical temperatures, thermal conductivities, time constants and optical efficiencies, and their uniformity across the entire wafer.
The Advanced Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter is an upgraded receiver for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, which has begun making measurements of the small angular scale polarization anisotropies in the Cosmic Microwave Background using the first of four new multichroic superconducting detector arrays. Here, we review all details of the optimization and characterization of this first array, which features 2012 AlMn transition- edge sensor bolometers operating at 150 and 230 GHz. We present critical temperatures, thermal conductivities, saturation powers, time constants, and sensitivities for the array. The results show high uniformity across the 150 mm wafer and good performance in the field.
The Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) upgrade on the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) consists of multichroic
Transition Edge Sensor (TES) detector arrays to measure the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) polarization
anisotropies in multiple frequency bands. The first AdvACT detector array, sensitive to both 150 and 230 GHz, is
fabricated on a 150 mm diameter wafer and read out with a completely different scheme compared to ACTPol.
Approximately 2000 TES bolometers are packed into the wafer leading to both a much denser detector density and
readout circuitry. The demonstration of the assembly and integration of the AdvACT arrays is important for the next
generation CMB experiments, which will continue to increase the pixel number and density. We present the detailed
assembly process of the first AdvACT detector array.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) is a polarization sensitive upgrade to the Atacama Cosmology Telescope, located at an elevation of 5190 m on Cerro Toco in Chile. ACTPol uses transition edge sensor bolometers coupled to orthomode transducers to measure both the temperature and polarization of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). Calibration of the detector angles is a critical step in producing polarization maps of the CMB. Polarization angle offsets in the detector calibration can cause leakage in polarization from E to B modes and induce a spurious signal in the EB and TB cross correlations, which eliminates our ability to measure potential cosmological sources of EB and TB signals, such as cosmic birefringence. We calibrate the ACTPol detector angles by ray tracing the designed detector angle through the entire optical chain to determine the projection of each detector angle on the sky. The distribution of calibrated detector polarization angles are consistent with a global offset angle from zero when compared to the EB-nulling offset angle, the angle required to null the EB cross-correlation power spectrum. We present the optical modeling process. The detector angles can be cross checked through observations of known polarized sources, whether this be a galactic source or a laboratory reference standard. To cross check the ACTPol detector angles, we use a thin film polarization grid placed in front of the receiver of the telescope, between the receiver and the secondary reflector. Making use of a rapidly rotating half-wave plate (HWP) mount we spin the polarizing grid at a constant speed, polarizing and rotating the incoming atmospheric signal. The resulting sinusoidal signal is used to determine the detector angles.
The optical modeling calibration was shown to be consistent with a global offset angle of zero when compared to EB nulling in the first ACTPol results and will continue to be a part of our calibration implementation. The first array of detectors for Advanced ACTPol, the next generation upgrade to ACTPol, will be deployed in 2016. We plan to continue using both techniques and compare them to astrophysical source measurements for the Advanced ACTPol polarization calibration.
Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) is an upgraded camera for the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) that will measure the cosmic microwave background in temperature and polarization over a wide range of angular scales and five frequency bands from 28-230 GHz. AdvACT will employ four arrays of feedhorn-coupled, polarization- sensitive multichroic detectors. To accommodate the higher pixel packing densities necessary to achieve Ad- vACT’s sensitivity goals, we have developed and optimized wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the AdvACT multichroic arrays that maximize coupling efficiency while carefully controlling polarization systematics. We present the design, fabrication, and testing of wideband spline-profiled feedhorns for the multichroic arrays of AdvACT.
Advanced ACTPol is an instrument upgrade for the six-meter Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) designed to
measure the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization with arcminute-scale angular
resolution. To achieve its science goals, Advanced ACTPol utilizes a larger readout multiplexing factor than any
previous CMB experiment to measure detector arrays with approximately two thousand transition-edge sensor
(TES) bolometers in each 150 mm detector wafer. We present the implementation and testing of the Advanced
ACTPol time-division multiplexing readout architecture with a 64-row multiplexing factor. This includes testing
of individual multichroic detector pixels and superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) multiplexing
chips as well as testing and optimizing of the integrated readout electronics. In particular, we describe the new
automated multiplexing SQUID tuning procedure developed to select and optimize the thousands of SQUID
parameters required to readout each Advanced ACTPol array. The multichroic detector pixels in each array
use separate channels for each polarization and each of the two frequencies, such that four TESes must be read
out per pixel. Challenges addressed include doubling the number of detectors per multiplexed readout channel
compared to ACTPol and optimizing the Nyquist inductance to minimize detector and SQUID noise aliasing.
The next generation Advanced ACTPol (AdvACT) experiment is currently underway and will consist of four Transition Edge Sensor (TES) bolometer arrays, with three operating together, totaling ~ 5800 detectors on the sky. Building on experience gained with the ACTPol detector arrays, AdvACT will utilize various new technologies, including 150 mm detector wafers equipped with multichroic pixels, allowing for a more densely packed focal plane. Each set of detectors includes a feedhorn array of stacked silicon wafers which form a spline profile leading to each pixel. This is then followed by a waveguide interface plate, detector wafer, back short cavity plate, and backshort cap. Each array is housed in a custom designed structure manufactured from high purity copper and then gold plated. In addition to the detector array assembly, the array package also encloses cryogenic readout electronics. We present the full mechanical design of the AdvACT high frequency (HF) detector array package along with a detailed look at the detector array stack assemblies. This experiment will also make use of extensive hardware and software previously developed for ACT, which will be modified to incorporate the new AdvACT instruments. Therefore, we discuss the integration of all AdvACT arrays with pre-existing ACTPol infrastructure.