Template matching method is presented to identify the peaks from the scanned signals of lateral flow immunoassay
strips. The template is composed of two pulses separated by the distance of the control and the target ligand line in the
assay, and is convolved with the scanned signal to deliver the maximum at the center of the two peaks. The peak regions
were identified with the predefined distances from the center. Glycosylated haemoglobin immunoassay strips and
fluorescent strip readers from Boditechmed Inc. were tested to estimate the lot and reader variations of the concentration
measurands. The results showed the robustness of the propose method.
Proc. SPIE. 7929, Microfluidics, BioMEMS, and Medical Microsystems IX
KEYWORDS: Human-machine interfaces, Fluctuations and noise, Computing systems, Control systems, Telecommunications, Process control, Analytical research, Computer architecture, Control systems design, Temperature metrology
Effective host-local system architecture for PCR chips is presented. The functions required for the control of the chips
and their partitioning into the host and the local system are qualitatively analyzed. The results indicated that, most
functions can be resided in the host to deliver the benefits on the development period, the system cost, and the
maintenance. The control system was implemented with PC as the host and the local system was connected by USB
interface, obtaining the superior development and the GUI design environment. A PCB-based PCR chip example was
constructed and tested to verify the proposed system.
We propose a nonlinear matching measure, called counting measure, as a signal detection measure that is defined as the number of on pixels in the spot area. It is applied to classify probes for an on-off type DNA microarray, where each probe spot is classified as hybridized or not. The counting measure also incorporates the maximum response search method, where the expected signal is obtained by taking the maximum among the measured responses of the various positions and sizes of the spot template. The counting measure was compared to existing signal detection measures such as the normalized covariance and the median for 2390 patient samples tested on the human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA chip. The counting measure performed the best regardless of whether or not the maximum response search method was used. The experimental results showed that the counting measure combined with the positional search was the most preferable.
We propose a new nonlinear matching measure for automatic analysis of the on-off type DNA microarray images in which the hybridized spots are detected by a template-matching method. The proposed measure is obtained by binary thresholding over the entire template region and taking the number of white pixels inside the spotted area. This measure is compared with the normalized covariance method in terms of classifying the ability to successfully locate markers. The proposed measure was evaluated for scanned images of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA microarrays where locating markers is a critical issue because of the small number of spots. The targeting spots of HPV DNA chips are designed for genotyping twenty-two types of the human papillomavirus. The proposed measure is proven to give a more discriminative response, reducing the missed cases of successful marker location. The locating accuracy of the proposed method is also shown to have the same performance as that of the normalized covariance.
In this paper, we propose a new nonlinear matching measure for automatic analysis of the on-off type DNA microarray images in which the hybridized spots are detected by the template matching method. The targeting spots of HPV DNA chips are designed for genotyping the human papilloma virus(HPV). The proposed measure is obtained by binarythresholding over the whole template region and taking the number of white pixels inside the spotted area. This measure
is evaluated in terms of the accuracy of the estimated marker location to show better performance than the normalized covariance.
This paper addresses the image processing technique for discriminating whether the probes are hybrized with target DNA in the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) DNA Chip designed for genotyping HPV. In addition to the probes, the HPV DNA chip has markers that always react with the sample DNA. The positions of probe-dots in the final scanned image are fixed relative to the marker-dot locations with a small variation according to the accuracy of the dotter and the scanner. The probes are duplicated 4 times for the diagnostic stability. The prior knowledges such as the maker relative distance and the duplication information of probes is integrated into the template matching technique with the normalized correlation measure. Results show that the employment of both of the prior knowledges is to simply average the template matching measures over the positions of the markers and probes. The eventual proposed scheme yields stable marker locating and probe classification.
As medical imaging is adapting to the digital technology, solid imaging sensors are replacing the classical films in dental application. CCD is one of the typical image senors in this are. In the oral imaging, however, the size of image sensors should be large because there is not enough space for optical path of lens inside the mouth. The unavoidable defects are usually occurred in the large format CCD sensor. Practically it is not possible to get the defect free sensor because its cost is rapidly increasing to reduce the defects. In this paper we will present an efficient strategy to handle these defects. As the lighting is highly controllable differently from the common cameras, the controlled illumination is used to create uniform images with various levels. The local statistics in each controlled image are investigated to find defected areas. All the defected regions of each image are accumulated forming image-like representation. The defected regions are concealed with their neighbors by linear interpolation.
In this paper the design considerations for a digital dental x-ray system is discussed where a commercial CCD sensor is adopted. Especially the system should be able to work with several x-ray machines even with them for the classical film. The hardware-software co-design methodology is employed to optimize the system. The full digital implementation is assumed for the reliability of the system. The considered functions cover the pre-processing such as the exposure detection, clamping and the dark level correction and the post-processing such as gray level compensation. It is analyzed with some other constraints in order to make the final partition. The entire system based on the partition will be described.
While the DNA chip is going to be prevalent for the medical diagnostics and drug development, its analysis tool such as a chip scanner need to be optimized. To obtain the guideline for the optimized CCD-based scanner, this paper addresses the minimum requirements for the selected CCD-based detector under the chosen light condition. The scope of our experiments was focused on the scanning performance rather than the design of the chip scanner itself. Through the gray level analysis of the target spot and background, we could check the possibility of the CCD-based detector and the lighting lamp to adopt them as a low price scanner. A quality measure was investigated with two levels of lighting power and the various integration times. For the CCD-based detector and the Xenon lighting system, we evaluated the image performance with the developed quality measure. We define a background and a sample area mask manually to investigate the statistics of the images captured by the scanner. The developed system is composed with a medium price CCD camera and a zenon lamp lighting system. The developed system has reasonable performance for the scanned image. The risk ofphotobleaching was not shown in our experiments.
In this paper, we propose an adaptive entropy coding method to improve the VLC coding efficiency of H.26L TML-1 codec. First of all, we will show that the VLC coding presented in TML-1 does not satisfy the sibling property of entropy coding. Then, we will modify the coding method into the local statistics adaptive one to satisfy the property. The proposed method based on the local symbol statistics dynamically changes the mapping relationship between symbol and bit pattern in the VLC table according to sibling property. Note that the codewords in the VLC table of TML-1 codec is not changed. Since this changed mapping relationship also derived in the decoder side by using the decoded symbols, the proposed VLC coding method does not require any overhead information. The simulation results show that the proposed method gives about 30% and 37% reduction in average bit rate for MB type and CBP information, respectively.
We address a new error-resilient scheme for the as-yet- defined H.263++ standard of Question 15/Study Group 16 in ITU-T. The key idea is the use of essential administration at the end of each data-partitioned packet in order to provide error localization with increased credibility. Furthermore, since the additional CODs consist of fixed length codes, effect of inaccurate rate control can be minimized. Through computer simulations, the proposed auxiliary information at the end of each packet offers improvement of picture quality especially in low error-prone channel. The proposed method is a part of layered data partitioning to be presented in ITU-T and the rudimentary result are introduced in this paper.
This paper presents a new error-resilient scheme for the as- yet-defined H.263++ (backward-compatible with both H.263+ and H.263) standard of Question 15/Study Group 16 in International Telecommunication Union (ITU). The key idea is the layered protection of video bitstream in the context of data partitioning scheme, which can be realized by doing adaptive insertion of part of encoded video stream as the redundancy according to channel status and the importance of the syntax. Since the additional data at each layer can help on decoding with increased reliability picture quality can be improved. Also, number of frames decoded is increased with aid of the additional layer.
Motivated by error-robust mobile multiplexer what was called H.223/Annex A, we investigate restriction of H.263 functionality in H.324 mobile terminals against error-prone channel. Although H.223/A employs strong error protection schemes such as rate compatible punctured convolutional code and automatic retransmission on request, it cannot detect errors is encoded video bit stream. In order to further increase the performance of the total H.324/M system, it is desirable to reduce functionality of H.263 so that H.263 decoder can easily locate errors in incoming H.263 stream, which cannot be made possible by H.223/A. We suggest one possible way to achieve H.263-compatible and reduced functionality incorporated with a new mobile multiplexer in wireless links aiming at enhancement of visual quality at receiver.
This paper presents an effective and simple video decoding and simple video decoding method in H.263 over noisy channels without use of any kind of feedback information. We address that through the computer simulations the negotiable options of H.263 are of not use for error-robustness against error-prone channel, and propose one of easy error detection/correction methods. The key idea is that sacrifice of coding efficiency by restricting some functionalities of H.263 reduces the number of a set of possible administrative information, which allows a decoder to easily check whether or not the desirable syntax has been obtained and to try syntax correction. Applying this method, for example, syntax errors such as 'MCBPC' errors can be easily detected and corrected, which are crucial for removing visually annoying 'green/pink' block artifacts completely. Since the proposed method is completely H/263-compatible, the decoder is very good at finding H.263 syntax errors caused by channel errors. The channel model we have chosen was DECT2 with bit- error-rate of 2.1 X 10<SUP>-3</SUP>.
A bottom-up approach to predict wavelets with implicit optical flow is introduced. The presented method is composed of the recursive application of a pel-recursive approach and a wavelet transform. It is compared with a top-down approach theoretically and the existing block motion approach (BMA) with experiments. The presented method shows better performance than BMA for the real image sequence with small motion. It also results in smaller prediction error for the image sequence even with large motion with a prior motion information such as the optical flow of the previous frame or the prediction frame of BMA.