Lattice light-sheet (LLS) microscopy provides ultrathin light sheets of a two-dimensional optical lattice that allows us imaging three-dimensional (3D) objects for hundreds of time points at sub-second intervals and at or below the diffraction limit. Galectin-3 (Gal3), a carbohydrate-binding protein, triggers glycosphingolipid (GSL)-dependent biogenesis of morphologically distinct endocytic vesicles that are cargo specific and clathrin independent. In this study, we apply LLS microscopy to study the dynamics of Gal3 dependent endocytosis in live T cells. This will allow us to observe Gal3-mediated endocytosis at high temporal and excellent 3D spatial resolution, which may shed light on our understanding of the mechanism and physiological function of Gal3-induced endocytosis.
Major anthropogenic sources of sulphur dioxide in the troposphere include point sources such as power plants and combustion-derived industrial sources. Spatially resolved remote sensing of atmospheric trace gases is desirable for better estimation and validation of emission from those sources. It has been reported that Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (I-DOAS) technique can provide the spatially resolved two-dimensional distribution measurement of atmospheric trace gases. This study presents the results of I-DOAS observations of SO2 from a large power plant. The stack plume from the Taean coal-fired power plant was remotely sensed with an I-DOAS instrument. The slant column density (SCD) of SO2 was derived by data analysis of the absorption spectra of the scattered sunlight measured by an I-DOAS over the power plant stacks. Two-dimensional distribution of SO2 SCD was obtained over the viewing window of the I-DOAS instrument. The measured SCDs were converted to mixing ratios in order to estimate the rate of SO2 emission from each stack. The maximum mixing ratio of SO2 was measured to be 28.1 ppm with a SCD value of 4.15×1017 molecules/cm2. Based on the exit velocity of the plume from the stack, the emission rate of SO2 was estimated to be 22.54 g/s. Remote sensing of SO2 with an I-DOAS instrument can be very useful for independent estimation and validation of the emission rates from major point sources as well as area sources.