Significance: Transcranial photobiomodulation (PBM) is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique capable of producing changes in the mitochondrial cytochrome c-oxidase (CCO) activity of neurons. Although the application of PBM in clinical practice and as a neurophysiological tool is increasing, less is known about how different treatment time intervals may result in different outcomes.
Aim: We evaluated the effects of different PBM treatment intervals on brain metabolic activity through the CCO and proto-oncogene expression (c-Fos).
Approach: We studied PBM effects on brain CCO and c-Fos expression in three groups of animals: Control (CN, n = 8), long interval PBM treatment (LI, n = 5), and short interval PBM treatment (SI, n = 5).
Results: Increased CCO activity in the LI group, compared to the SI and CN groups, was found in the prefrontal cortices, dorsal and ventral striatum, and hippocampus. Regarding c-Fos expression, we found a significant increase in the SI group compared to LI and CN, whereas LI showed increased c-Fos expression compared to CN in the cingulate and infralimbic cortices.
Conclusions: We show the effectiveness of different PBM interval schedules in increasing brain metabolic activity or proto-oncogene expression.
Laser cladding processing has been used in different industries to improve the surface properties or to reconstruct damaged pieces. In order to cover areas considerably larger than the diameter of the laser beam, successive partially overlapping tracks are deposited. With no control over the process variables this conduces to an increase of the temperature, which could decrease mechanical properties of the laser cladded material. Commonly, the process is monitored and controlled by a PC using cameras, but this control suffers from a lack of speed caused by the image processing step. The aim of this work is to design and develop a FPGA-based laser cladding control system. This system is intended to modify the laser beam power according to the melt pool width, which is measured using a CMOS camera. All the control and monitoring tasks are carried out by a FPGA, taking advantage of its abundance of resources and speed of operation. The robustness of the image processing algorithm is assessed, as well as the control system performance. Laser power is decreased as substrate temperature increases, thus maintaining a constant clad width. This FPGA-based control system is integrated in an adaptive laser cladding system, which also includes an adaptive optical system that will control the laser focus distance on the fly. The whole system will constitute an efficient instrument for part repair with complex geometries and coating selective surfaces. This will be a significant step forward into the total industrial implementation of an automated industrial laser cladding process.