A homogeneous illumination of a microscope requires a homogeneous intensity distribution in the field plane and in the pupil plane. An inhomogeneity in the pupil gives rise to a distortion in the image. This distortion is more clearly seen in defocused image planes and is commonly misinterpreted as classical aberration. An inhomogeneous intensity distribution in the field plane causes for example a line thickness variation of an imaged structure.
In classical microscopy which operates with classical light sources, for example spiral-wound filaments, the task of designing a homogenised illumination can be solved using geometrical optics. Using instead of an incoherent a partial coherent light source may lead to interferences in the pupil and in the field plane which represent the major problem of such illumination systems.
We present simulated results concerning the propagation of partial coherent light. The lateral and temporal coherence of a multimode laser was determined experimentally. With these results simulations were done using partial coherent beams. The considered optical components include lenslet arrays and diffractive optical elements.
The Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) for 193nm lithography emulation is established as a standard for the rapid prediction of wafer printability of critical features, such as dense patterns or contacts, defects or repairs on masks. The benefit of AIMS is to save expensive image qualification consisting of test wafer exposures followed by wafer SEM measurements. By adjustment of numerical aperture, illumination type and partial coherence to match the stepper or scanner, AIMS predicts the printability of any 193nm reticle like binary, OPC and PSM. The newly available 193nm 2<sup>nd</sup> generation AIMS fab systems are able to emulate numerical apertures (NA) up to 0.92 and provide a capability down to 65nm node regardless of the use of an immersion liquid or dry conditions. Rigorous simulation studies have been performed to study the matching of AIMS and scanner results at NA = 0.92 and to study the extension of the AIMS technique for immersion lithography emulation of hyper NA up to at least 1.4. Strong polarization effects depending on mask patterns and material as well as imaging effects will occur below the 65nm node. It will be shown that using the polarization capabilities of such a future immersion AIMS tool will provide a very suitable immersion lithography emulator. Together with low k1 values and polarization effects, 193nm mask design and manufacturing will face increased challenges for design and OPC placement at the 65nm node and below. Aerial image measurements of test masks using AIMS will then be crucial to speed up mask development. We propose to measure reticles on critical points as defined by simulation or areas of concern for manufacture with the AIMS system to analyze defect printability and mask manufacturability.
The Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) for 193 nm lithography emulation has been brought into operation worldwide successfully. Adjusting optical equivalent settings to steppers/scanners the AIMS system for 193 nm allows to emulate any type of reticles for 193 nm lithography. The overall system performance is demonstrated by AIMS measurements at 193 nm wavelength on binary chrome masks and phase shift masks. Especially for evaluation of 65 nm node lithography performance process window results will be discussed. An ArF excimer laser is in use for illumination. Therefore a beam homogenizer is needed to reduce the speckles in the laser beam and ensure a similar illumination uniformity as the longer wavelength systems, 248 nm and longer, using an arc source. A new beam homogenizing technique will be presented and illumination results compared to the current solution. The latest results on enhanced illumination uniformity exceed the current performance. A newly developed hybrid objective for high resolution imaging is tested for use of high resolution imaging in order to review defects and investigate repairs which do not print under stepper equivalent optical settings. An outlook will be given for extension of 193 nm aerial imaging down to the 45 nm node. Polarization effects will be discussed.
The Aerial Image Measurement System (AIMS) for 193 nm lithography emulation has been brought into operation successfully worldwide. By adjustment of illumination type, numerical aperture and partial coherence to match the conditions in 193 nm steppers or scanners, AIMS can emulate for any type of reticles like binary, OPC and phase shift. AIMS allows a rapid prediction of wafer printability of critical features, like dense patterns or contacts, defects or repairs on the masks without the need to do real wafer prints using the cost intensive lithography equipment. Therefore, AIMS is a mask quality verification standard for high-end masks established in mask shops worldwide. With smaller nodes, where design rules are below 100 nm and low k1 factors are used in the lithography process, the increasing printability of even smaller defects on reticles is becoming a serious problem. The evaluation of defect printability using AIMS becomes a significant aid and cost-saving technique to be applied directly in the wafer fab. The overall measurement capability of the 193 nm AIMS system will be demonstrated by measurements at 193 nm wavelength on attenuated phase shift masks. Excellent illumination uniformity is crucial for quantitative analysis of AIMS measurements such as CD variation or defect printability. To reduce disturbing speckle formation of the highly coherent ArF excimer laser a new beam homogenizing technique which contains motionless parts only will be presented as well as illumination homogeneity results compared to the current solution using a spinning scattering disk. The latest results on illumination performance exceed the current results especially with respect to illumination uniformity over the field. The improved performance will enable improved measurement capability down to the 65 nm node. An outlook will be given for extension of 193 nm aerial imaging down to the 45 nm node emulating immersion scanners.
The dynamic behavior of the light output from aluminum-free 980nm ridge waveguide GaInAs/GaInAsP/GaInP pump lasers is studied in the high power regime on a picosecond time scale. Three types of the temporal evolution of the turn-on emission dynamics measured by a single-shot streak-camera can be distinguished in the near field, according to the injection current. First, at moderate pumping, the laser emission evolves through a regime of relaxation oscillations, which can be modelled by rate equations incorporating nonlinear gain. Second, at a higher current, high frequency switching between the left and right part of the active region is observed. The frequency of the switching increases proportional to the excitation current amplitude and is in the order of 10GHz. The third regime shows highly complex spatio-temporal dynamics with the coexistence of low and high frequency spatial switching and temporal pulsations. Finally, consequences of the results for applications will be discussed.