GIANO-B is the high resolution near-infrared (NIR) spectrograph of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), which started its regular operations in October 2017. Here we present GIANO-B Online Data Reduction Software (DRS) operating at the Telescope.<p> </p> GIANO-B Online DRS is a complete end-to-end solution for the spectrograph real-time data handling. The Online DRS provides management, processing and archival of GIANO-B scientific and calibration data. Once the instrument control software acquires the exposure ramp segments from the detector, the DRS ensures the complete data flow until the final data products are ingested into the science archive. A part of the Online DRS is GOFIO software, which performs the reduction process from ramp-processed 2D spectra to extracted and calibrated 1D spectra.<p> </p> A User Interface (UI) developed as a part of the Online DRS provides basic information on the final reduced data, thus allowing the observer to take decisions in real-time during the night and adjust the observational strategy as needed.
The quality of SiFAP (Silicon Fast Astronomical Photometer) at the TNG has already shown its ability to easily detect optical pulses from transitional millisecond pulsars and from other slower neutron stars. Up to now the photometer based on Silicon Photo Multipliers manufactured by Hamamatsu Photonics (MPPC, Multi Pixel Photon Counter) was mounted (on and manually aligned with) a MOS mask at the F/11 focal plane of the telescope. In order to have a more versatile instrument with the possibility to remotely center and point several targets during the night we have decided to build a new mechanical support for the MPPCs and mount it on the Namsyth Interface (NI), where originally OIG and later GIANO were hosted. The MPPC module devoted to observe the target will be placed at the center of the FoV (on-axis), while the reference signal will be collected from a peripheral star in the FoV (Field of view) by means of the MPPC module that will be set at this position by a combination of a linear stage movement and a derotator angle. At the same time we have introduced the option for a polarimetric mode, with a 3rd MPPC module and a polarizing cube beam-splitter that separates the states between this and the on axis MPPC. SiFAP has been developed with 3 independent custom electronic chains for data acquisition, exploiting the 3 different outputs (analog, digital, USB pre-processed) provided by the MPPCs modules. The electronic chain fed by the analog output is able to tag a single photon ToA (Time of Arrival) with a time resolution of 25 ns, while the remaining electronic chains can integrate the signal into time bins from 100 ms down to 20 μs. The absolute time is provided by a GPS unit with a time resolution of 25 ns at 50% of the rising edge of the 1PPS (1 Pulse Per Second) signal which is linked to the UTC (Universal Time Coordinated). Apart from the versatility with the remotely controlled on sky configuration of the MPPCs, the mounting of SiFAP2 at the NI allows for a permanent hosting of the instrument, readily available for observations. The new polarimetric mode will then offer other scientific opportunities that have not been explored so far in high-temporal resolution astronomy.
GIARPS (GIAno and haRPS) is a project devoted to have on the same focal station of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) both high resolution spectrographs, HARPS–N (VIS) and GIANO–B (NIR), working simultaneously. This could be considered the first and unique worldwide instrument providing cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy at a resolution of 50,000 in the NIR range and 115,000 in the VIS and over in a wide spectral range (0.383−2.45 μm) in a single exposure. The science case is very broad, given the versatility of such an instrument and its large wavelength range. A number of outstanding science cases encompassing mainly extra-solar planet science starting from rocky planets search and hot Jupiters to atmosphere characterization can be considered. Furthermore both instruments can measure high precision radial velocities by means the simultaneous thorium technique (HARPS–N) and absorbing cell technique (GIANO–B) in a single exposure. Other science cases are also possible. GIARPS, as a brand new observing mode of the TNG started after the moving of GIANO–A (fiber fed spectrograph) from Nasmyth–A to Nasmyth–B where it was re–born as GIANO–B (no more fiber feed spectrograph). The official Commissioning finished on March 2017 and then it was offered to the community. Despite the work is not finished yet. In this paper we describe the preliminary scientific results obtained with GIANO–B and GIARPS observing mode with data taken during commissioning and first open time observations.
The NIR echelle spectrograph GIANO-B at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo is equipped with a fully automated online DRS: part of this pipeline is the GOFIO reduction software, that processes all the observed data, from the calibrations to the nodding or stare images. GOFIO reduction process includes bad pixel and cosmic removal, flat-field and blaze correction, optimal extraction, wavelength calibration, nodding or stare group processing. An offline version of GOFIO will allow the users to adapt the reduction to their needs, and to compute the radial velocity using telluric lines as a reference system. GIANO-B may be used simultaneously with HARPS-N in the GIARPS observing mode to obtain high-resolution spectra in a wide wavelength range (383-2450 nm) with a single acquisition. In this framework, GOFIO, as part of the online DRS, provides fast and reliable data reduction during the night, in order to compare the infrared and visible observations on the fly.
The Multi-AO Imaging Camera for Deep Observations (MICADO), a first light instrument for the 39 m European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT), is being designed and optimized to work with the Multi-Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) module MAORY (0.8-2.5 μm). The current concept of the MICADO instrument consists of a structural cryostat (2.1 m diameter and 2 m height) with the wavefront sensor (WFS) on top. The cryostat is mounted via its central flange with a direct interface to a large 2.5-m-diameter high-precision bearing, which rotates the entire camera (plus wavefront sensor) assembly to allow for image derotation without individually moving optical elements. The whole assembly is suspended at 3.6 m above the E-ELT Nasmyth platform by a Hexapod-type support structure. We describe the design of the MICADO derotator, a key mechanism that must precisely rotate the cryostat/SCAO-WFS assembly around its optical axis with an angular positioning accuracy better than 10 arcsec, in order to compensate the field rotation due to the alt-azimuth mount of the E-ELT. Special attention is being given to simulate the performance of the derotator during the design phase, in which both static and dynamics behaviors are being considered in parallel. The statics flexure analysis is done using a detailed Finite Element Model (FEM), while the dynamics simulation is being developed with the mathematical model of the derotator implemented in Matlab/Simulink. Finally, both aspects must be combined through a realistic end-to-end model. The experiment designed to prove the current concept of the MICADO derotator is also presented in this work.
GIARPS (GIAno and haRPS) is a project devoted to have on the same focal station of the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) both the high resolution spectrographs HARPS-N (VIS) and GIANO (NIR) working simultaneously. This could be considered the first and unique worldwide instrument providing cross-dispersed echelle spectroscopy at a high resolution (R=115,000 in the visual and R=50,000 in the IR) and over in a wide spectral range (0.383 - 2.45 μm) in a single exposure. The science case is very broad, given the versatility of such an instrument and the large wavelength range. A number of outstanding science cases encompassing mainly extra-solar planet science starting from rocky planet search and hot Jupiters, atmosphere characterization can be considered. Furthermore both instrument can measure high precision radial velocity by means the simultaneous thorium technique (HARPS - N) and absorbing cell technique (GIANO) in a single exposure. Other science cases are also possible. Young stars and proto- planetary disks, cool stars and stellar populations, moving minor bodies in the solar system, bursting young stellar objects, cataclysmic variables and X-ray binary transients in our Galaxy, supernovae up to gamma-ray bursts in the very distant and young Universe, can take advantage of the unicity of this facility both in terms of contemporaneous wide wavelength range and high resolution spectroscopy.
Usually observational astronomy is based on direction and intensity of radiation considered as a function of wavelength
and time. Despite the polarisation degree of radiation provides information about asymmetry, anisotropy and magnetic
fields within the radiative source or in the medium along the line of sight, it is commonly ignored. Because of the
importance of high resolution spectropolarimetry to study a large series of phenomena related to the interaction of
radiation with matter, as in stellar atmospheres or more generally stellar envelopes, we designed and built a dual beam
polarimeter for HARPS-N that is in operation at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo. Since the polarisation degree is
measured from the combination of a series of measurements and accuracy is limited by the instrumental stability, just the
great stability (0.6 m/s) and spectral resolution (R=115000) of the HARPS-N spectrograph should result in an accuracy
in the measurements of Stokes parameters as small as 0.01%. Here we report on the design, realization, assembling,
aligning and testing of the polarimetric unit whose first light is planned in August 2014.
We present ARDOLORES a custom made motor control system for the DOLORES instrument in use at the TNG telescope. ARDOLORES replaced the original PMAC based motor control system at a fraction of the cost. The whole system is composed by one master Arduino ONE with its Ethernet shield, to handle the communications with the external world through an Ethernet socket, and by one Arduino ONE with its custom motor shield for each axis to be controlled. The communication between the master and slaves Arduinos is made possible through the I<sup>2</sup>C bus. Also a Java web-service has been written to control the motors from an higher level and provides an external API for the scientific GUI. The system has been working since January 2012 handling the DOLORES motors and has demonstrated to be stable, reliable, and with easy maintenance in both the hardware and the software parts.
The OCS<sup>1</sup> (Observation Control System) is a software architecture that allows automatic observations at the TNG<sup>2</sup> (Telescopio Nazionale Galileo).
It plays a critical role as it is responsible for orchestrating several devices and going through several heterogeneous software interfaces across the telescope.
One successful key aspect of the OCS is the interface decoupling over the telescope devices in order to reach a high grade of automatism.
The OCS architecture was successfully developed and installed at the TNG just before the arrival of HARPSN3 (more than 2 years ago) and has now reached a good level of maturity and flexibility. Using standard protocols like HTTP which allows a quick integration with new instruments and devices.
At the beginning, when only two systems were connected to the OCS the HARPS-N scheduler and the TNG tracking system, other systems have been added to include more features, for example the service offered by the Active Optics system.
The Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) hosts, starting in April 2012, the visible spectrograph HARPS-N. It is based
on the design of its predecessor working at ESO's 3.6m telescope, achieving unprecedented results on radial velocity
measurements of extrasolar planetary systems. The spectrograph's ultra-stable environment, in a temperature-controlled
vacuum chamber, will allow measurements under 1 m/s which will enable the characterization of rocky, Earth-like
planets. Enhancements from the original HARPS include better scrambling using octagonal section fibers with a shorter
length, as well as a native tip-tilt system to increase image sharpness, and an integrated pipeline providing a complete set
Observations in the Kepler field will be the main goal of HARPS-N, and a substantial fraction of TNG observing time
will be devoted to this follow-up. The operation process of the observatory has been updated, from scheduling
constraints to telescope control system. Here we describe the entire instrument, along with the results from the first
In glance, Tesescopio Nazionale Galileo<sup>1</sup> (TNG) is going to present a New Telescope Control System (a.k.a. NTCS)following the new paths targeted for this medium size, ground based telescope. The core of this new TCS is based on a new system and software architecture which allows the telescope to reach the new goals with a higher grade of efficiency, automation and flexibility.
Since 2011 a new differential image motion monitor (DIMM) works at Roque de los Muchachos Observatory close to
Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG). The purpose of this instrument is to provide useful information about the optical
turbulence for the astronomical observations at TNG. We present the instrument and the first statistical results including
a relationship between the principal components analysis of local-ground atmospheric parameters and seeing.