Proc. SPIE. 9456, Sensors, and Command, Control, Communications, and Intelligence (C3I) Technologies for Homeland Security, Defense, and Law Enforcement XIV
KEYWORDS: Defense and security, Mobile devices, Visualization, Sensors, Satellites, Video, Raster graphics, Commercial off the shelf technology, Global Positioning System, Situational awareness sensors
To make appropriate, timely decisions in the field, Situational Awareness (SA) needs to be conveyed in a decentralized manner to the users at the edge of the network as well as at operations centers. Sharing real-time SA efficiently between command centers and operational troops poses many challenges, including handling heterogeneous and dynamic networks, resource constraints, and varying needs for the collection, dissemination, and display of information, as well as recording that information.
A mapping application that allows teams to share relevant geospatial information efficiently and to communicate effectively with one another and command centers has wide applicability to many vertical markets across the Department of Defense, as well as a wide variety of federal, state local, and non-profit agencies that need to share locations, text, photos, and video.
This paper describes the Android Team Awareness Kit (ATAK), an advanced, distributed tool for commercial- off-the-shelf (COTS) mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets. ATAK provides a variety of useful SA functions for soldiers, law enforcement, homeland defense, and civilian collaborative use; including mapping and navigation, range and bearing, text chat, force tracking, geospatial markup tools, image and file sharing, video playback, site surveys, and many others. This paper describes ATAK, the SA tools that ATAK has built-in, and the ways it is being used by a variety of military, homeland security, and law enforcement users.
Proc. SPIE. 8405, Defense Transformation and Net-Centric Systems 2012
KEYWORDS: Satellites, Control systems, Telecommunications, Satellite communications, Wireless communications, Space operations, Data communications, Tolerancing, Information security, Computer security
Disadvantaged wireless communications, such as those in fractionated spacecraft systems, need real-time, reliable, and
fault tolerant information dissemination from information producers (such as sensors) to information consumers (such as
information exploitation, analysis, or command and control systems). Such systems are well-suited to the publishsubscribe
paradigm, but cannot afford the large footprint of many publish-subscribe systems and do not provide the
underlying high-bandwidth, stable connectivity many publish-subscribe systems assume. Similarly, publish-subscribe
systems cannot, by themselves, provide the real-time performance and quality of service needed by many missioncritical
and spacecraft applications; they need enforcement and control provided by an underlying network. This paper
presents a concept for a dissemination system suited to space-borne platforms that combines a lightweight
implementation of the OMG's Data Dissemination Service with a simplified Content Delivery Network. The result is a
topic-based publish-subscribe information dissemination service that supports decoupled publishers and subscribers of
varying numbers, automated failover, and quality of service (QoS), coupled with a topic-based network that can enforce
QoS parameters and efficiently deliver published messages based on the subscriptions registered by consumers.
Information Management (IM) services support the discovery, brokering, and dissemination of mission-critical information
based on the information's content and characteristics. IM services support the dissemination of future information
(through subscriptions) and past information (through queries) regardless of its source. To be useful across enterprise
and tactical environments, IM services need mission-driven Quality of Service (QoS) features as part of their core functionality.
We have developed QoS management features, QoS Enabled Dissemination (QED), that extend an Air Force
Research Laboratory (AFRL) developed set of IM services, Phoenix. This paper describes the results of a joint services
experiment evaluating QED and Phoenix in a US Navy scenario involving multiple ships connected by a Disconnected,
Intermittent, Limited (DIL) satellite network. Experiments evaluate QED and Phoenix's ability to (1) provide IM in the
Wide Area Network (WAN) context of the satellite communications, which includes long latencies and background traffic
not under QED control; (2) control and utilize active-precedence and queue management features provided by the
WAN; (3) handle severe network overload, network disruptions, and dynamic changes in policies; and (4) successfully
enforce deadlines and information replacement policies.
Information Management (IM) services need lifecycle management, i.e., determining how long persistent information is
retained locally and when it is moved to accommodate new information. This is important when bridging IM services
from enterprise to tactical environments, which can have limited onboard storage and be in highly dynamic situations
with varying information needs. In this paper, we describe an approach to Value Function based Information Lifecycle
Management (VFILM) that balances the value of existing information to current and future missions with constraints on
available storage. VFILM operates in parallel with IM services in dynamic situations where missions and their information
needs, the types of information being managed, and the criticality of information to current missions and operations
are changing. In contrast to current solutions that simply move the oldest or least frequently accessed information when
space is needed, VFILM manages information lifecycle based on a combination of inputs including attributes of the information
(its age, size, type, and other observable attributes), ongoing operations and missions, and the relationships
between different pieces of information. VFILM has three primary innovative features: (1) a fuzzy logic function that
calculates a ordering of information value based on multiple relative valued attributes; (2) mission/task awareness that
considers current and upcoming missions in information valuation and storage requirements; and (3) information grouping
that treats related information collectively. This paper describes the VFILM architecture, a VFILM prototype that
works with Air Force Research Laboratory IM services, and the results of experiments showing VFILM's effectiveness and efficiency.
Net-centric information spaces have become a necessary concept to support information exchange for tactical warfighting
missions using a publish-subscribe-query paradigm. To support dynamic, mission-critical and time-critical operations,
information spaces require quality of service (QoS)-enabled dissemination (QED) of information. This paper describes
the results of research we are conducting to provide QED information exchange in tactical environments. We
have developed a prototype QoS-enabled publish-subscribe-query information broker that provides timely delivery of
information needed by tactical warfighters in mobile scenarios with time-critical emergent targets. This broker enables
tailoring and prioritizing of information based on mission needs and responds rapidly to priority shifts and unfolding
situations. This paper describes the QED architecture, prototype implementation, testing infrastructure, and empirical
evaluations we have conducted based on our prototype.
Effective network-centric warfare requires information exchange with suitable quality of service (QoS) to meet the warfighter's
needs. Information delivered too late or with the wrong resolution, form, or precision is insufficient for the user
to perform his role in a warfighting scenario. Key characteristics of network-centric warfare environments, as instantiated
by the Global Information Grid, are dynamic reconfiguration and interoperability, in which Communities of Interest
(COIs) can be formed and reformed dynamically to respond to real-time threats and unfolding situations. There is a need
for a QoS management capability that can support the dynamic interoperability and real-time requirements of networkcentric
warfare. In order to be effective, this QoS management capability must manage the production, delivery, and
consumption of information within available resources, mediate competing demands for resources, and adjust to dynamic
conditions. In this paper, we describe the architecture for a QoS Management System (QMS) that works alongside
information management systems in dynamic COIs. The QMS provides QoS management (including resource management
and quality of information management) in dynamically changing, mission driven environments for interoperating
assets within a COI and for assets and resources shared among COIs. The QMS provides mechanisms for QoS policy
specification, QoS enforcement and monitoring, dynamic resource allocation, and application adaptation in dynamic
COIs. It is based on a layered architecture that maps mission requirements to QoS policies and enforcement. We describe
the QMS architecture, prototype implementation, demonstration, and evaluation. Based on these experiences, we also discuss future research directions.