U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a major defense test range located in the remote west desert of Utah, USA. DPG is made up of various testing facilities, extensive test grids, and impact areas. DPG’s mission is testing for chemical and biological defense. Recently, a series of large-scale chlorine releases were held at DPG, known as the Jack Rabbit II test program. The purpose of the testing was to better define public safety parameters in the event of a large-scale chlorine release. DPG deployed 100s of point sensors to quantify the test events. Three single-wavelength UV lidar systems were also developed and deployed with the goal of providing a more overall picture of these events. This was an experimental effort using principles similar to Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) to estimate chlorine concentration and track clouds downrange. Lidar systems are typically configured with two wavelengths for DIAL measurements. As our effort was experimental and had very limited funds, we used on hand ND:YAG lasers at the 355 nm wavelength only. The second wavelength was later simulated from portions of the data in which no chlorine was present. The main assumption made in using only a single wavelength was that very limited aerosols and other types of chemicals would be mixed with the chlorine cloud. This single-wavelength approach was found to be an effective method for tracking absorbing chemical vapors. We obtained an overall picture of the test event and were able to estimate concentrations in post processing.
Dugway Proving Grounds (DPG) plays a key role in the open-air field-testing of systems used in defense against chemical and biological threats. The performance of systems under test are benchmarked against a suite of wellcharacterized point and standoff instrumentation. Elastic-backscatter lidar systems with large power-apertures operating at 1.06 μm provide standoff detection, quantification, and location of aerosol plumes. The accuracy and sensitivity these systems provide comes at the cost of a large NOHD (>5 km) which limits their utility. To this end, Space Dynamics Lab (SDL) developed an eye-safe system following system requirements from DPG. The system provides a standoff capability for field tests where a NOHZ and required PPE would be an undue burden. CELiS (Compact Eye-Safe Lidar System) is an elastic-backscatter lidar that operates at 1.57 μm, using a commercial 30 Hz Nd:YAG laser and OPO combination. The short pulse length and low repetition rate give the system an advantage in range resolution and daytime operation over a similarly sized system based on a fiber laser. CELiS uses LidarView, an SDL-developed lidar display package, for data acquisition and hardware control. The Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel (JABT) is used to perform calibration and sensitivity measurements of the various lidar systems at DPG. The JABT provides confinement of an aerosol plume and allows for comparison of TSI APS (Aerodynamic Particle Sizer) concentrations to the lidar backscatter values over an extended period. CELiS was used to support a recent JABT test and the data analysis and performance results from the test are described.
U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG) is a Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) with the mission of
testing chemical and biological defense systems and materials. DPG facilities include state-of-the-art laboratories,
extensive test grids, controlled environment calibration facilities, and a variety of referee instruments for required test
measurements. Among these referee instruments, DPG has built up a significant remote sensing capability for both
chemical and biological detection. Technologies employed for remote sensing include FTIR spectroscopy, UV
spectroscopy, Raman-shifted eye-safe lidar, and other elastic backscatter lidar systems. These systems provide referee
data for bio-simulants, chemical simulants, toxic industrial chemicals (TICs), and toxic industrial materials (TIMs). In
order to realize a successful large scale open-air test, each type of system requires calibration and characterization. DPG
has developed specific calibration facilities to meet this need. These facilities are the Joint Ambient Breeze Tunnel
(JABT), and the Active Standoff Chamber (ASC). The JABT and ASC are open ended controlled environment tunnels.
Each includes validation instrumentation to characterize simulants that are disseminated. Standoff systems are
positioned at typical field test distances to measure characterized simulants within the tunnel. Data from different types
of systems can be easily correlated using this method, making later open air test results more meaningful. DPG has a
variety of large scale test grids available for field tests. After and during testing, data from the various referee
instruments is provided in a visual format to more easily draw conclusions on the results. This presentation provides an
overview of DPG's standoff testing facilities and capabilities, as well as example data from different test scenarios.
The Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences (CASS) at Utah State University (USU) operates the ALO for studying the middle atmosphere from the stratosphere to the lower thermosphere. ALO's mid-latitude location (41.74°N, 1 1 1.81°W, 1466 m) is very unique in that it is in the middle of an extensive set of rugged mountains, the Rocky Mountains, which are a major orographic source of gravity waves that may give rise to a longitudinal variation in the mesospheric structure. Mesospheric observations between approximately 45 and 90 km have been carried out on many clear nights with the ALO Rayleighscatter lidar since late 1993. They have been carried out, mostly, with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser producing 18 W at 532 nm and a 44-cm zenith-pointing telescope. To obtain better and more complete observations in the future, a considerably bigger steerable telescope, an alexandrite ring laser for resonance scatter, and an expanded data-acquisition system are being developed. The observations in the extensive existing database have been reduced to provide absolute temperature profiles, which provide important information for understanding the physics and chemistry of the middle atmosphere and for examining global change. They have been used to make a mesospheric temperature climatology that has been and is being used to examine secular, annual, seasonal, and tidal variations, to compare with other temperature observations and with modeled temperatures, and to study mesospheric inversion layers. Day-to-day changes in the temperature profiles are also being compared to meteorological parameters to see if mesospheric changes can be related to low-altitude sources. Temporal and spatial fluctuations in the density profiles have also been examined to provide more direct information on gravity wave activity. And, on 24 June 1999 UT, the lidar probed the first known noctilucent cloud to penetrate to this low latitude, approximately 10° equatorward of previously reported sightings and detections.