Quantum mechanics and quantum chemistry have taught for more than 100 years that "photons" associated with microwaves cannot exert photochemical effects because their "photon energies" are smaller than chemical bond energies. Those quantum theories have been strongly contradicted within the last few decades by physical experiments demonstrating non-equilibrium, photochemical and photomaterial activity by microwaves. Reactions among scientists
to these real physical models and proofs have varied from disbelief and denial, to acceptance of the real physical phenomena and demands for revisions to quantum theory. At the previous "Nature of Light" meeting, an advance in the foundations of quantum mechanics was presented. Those discoveries have revealed the source of these conflicts between quantum theory and microwave experiments.
Critical variables and constants were missing from quantum theory due to a minor mathematical inadvertence in Planck's original quantum work. As a result, erroneous concepts were formed nearly a century ago regarding the energetics and mechanisms of lower frequency light, such as in the microwave region. The new discoveries have revealed that the traditional concept of "photons" mistakenly attributed elementary particle status to what is actually an arbitrarily time-based collection of sub-photonic, elementary particles. In a mathematical dimensional sense, those time-based energy measurements cannot be mathematically equivalent to bond energies as historically believed. Only an "isolated quantity of energy", as De Broglie referred to it, can be equivalent to bond energy. With the aid of the new variables and constants, the non-equilibrium mechanisms of light in the microwave region can now be described. They include resonant absorption, splitting frequency stimulation leading to electronic
excitation, and resonant acoustic transduction. Numerous practical engineering applications can be envisioned for non-equilibrium
An advance in the foundations of quantum mechanics was presented at the previous "Nature of Light" meeting which brings new insights to the conservation of light's energy, mass and momentum. Those discoveries suggest that the "photon" is a time-based collection of sub-photonic elementary light particles. Incorporation of this new understanding into quantum mechanics has allowed the determination of universal constants for the energy, mass, and momentum of
light. The energy constant for light is 6.626 X 10<sup>-34</sup> J/osc, meaning the energy of a single oscillation of light is constant
irrespective of the light's frequency or wavelength. Likewise, the mass and momentum of a single oscillation of light are constant, regardless of changes to either time or space. A realistic understanding of the conservation of energy, mass and momentum for both matter and light in a single conservation law is now possible. When a body with mass absorbs or emits light, its energy, mass and momentum change in quantized amounts according to the relationship:
Δ E = Nh<sup>~</sup> = Nm<sub>0</sub>c<sup>2</sup> = Nρ<sub>0</sub>c where "N" is the number of oscillations absorbed absorbed or emitted by the body and h<sup>~</sup>, m<sub>0</sub>, and ρ<sub>0</sub> are the constant energy, mass and momentum of an oscillation. Implications extend from general relativity and gravity to space sails and light driven nanomotors.
The discovery of Einstein's hidden variables was presented at the previous "Nature of Light" meeting, and revealed that Max Planck's famous quantum formula was incomplete. The complete quantum formula revealed a previously hidden energy constant for light, 6.626 X 10<sup>-34</sup> J/osc (the energy quantum of a single oscillation of light) and a measurement time variable. The "photon" is a time-based collection of sub-photonic elementary particles, namely single oscillations of light. An understanding of the <i>constant</i> speed of light as well as the <i>relative and additive</i> velocities of light's energy quantum is now possible. What emerges is a remarkably fresh and yet classical perspective. Einstein's three-dimensional light-quantum model applied to the recently discovered energy constant suggests the constant energy of an oscillation of light is distributed along its wavelength and is absorbed and emitted as a whole quantum. In a vacuum, light's oscillations travel at the constant speed of light (Lorentzian) regardless of their wavelength. The time-rate (velocity) with which the whole energy quantum of an oscillation is absorbed or emitted varies with its wavelength. The longer the wavelength, the longer it takes for the entire oscillation energy to be absorbed. Light's infinitely variable energy velocities are consistent with the Galilean principle of relative and additive velocities. A realistic mechanism for superluminal absorption and emission becomes apparent and a new corollary is found: <i>Light propagates from every transmitter at the same speed, but reaches receivers at different frequencies, depending on the relative difference between the speed of the transmitter and receiver.</i>
Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their
fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these
physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be
lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique
internally, however, just as they are unique externally.
New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal
characteristics. For example, "Boneprints<sup>TM</sup>" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb
pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in
virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical
impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded
in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts.
These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable,
providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with
physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification
that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential
to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*
Re-examination of the work of Max Karl Planck has revealed hidden variables in his famous quantum work,
consistent with Einstein's famous sentiment that quantum mechanics is incomplete due to the existence of "hidden
variables". The recent discovery of these previously hidden variables, which have been missing from the foundational
equations of quantum theory for more than one hundred years, has important implications for all the sciences as well as
for understanding the interactions of electromagnetic radiation with matter.
Planck's quantum formula, E = hν, is missing the variable for measurement time. Planck had included the
missing time variable in his earlier electromagnetic work, but omitted it in his famous work that sparked the quantum
revolution. Restoration of measurement time to Planck's quantum formula produces the more complete, E = h~ ν t. The
numerical value Planck calculated for his action constant "h" takes on new meaning as an <i>energy</i> constant "h~" for light.
Planck's energy constant is the mean energy of a single oscillation of light, namely 6.626 X 10<sup>-34</sup> J/oscillation. The
mean oscillation energy of light is <i>constant</i>, and does not vary with frequency or wavelength. The photon, as historically
defined, is a time dependent packet of energy, based on the arbitrary measurement time of one second. An arbitrary, one
second increment of energy cannot be a truly indivisible and elementary particle of nature.
Omission of the time variable from Planck's quantum formula contributed to numerous paradoxes in quantum
mechanics, such as uncertainty relating to formulations involving time, wave-particle duality, the need for normalization
of wave functions, lack of dimensions for the fine structure constant, and irreconcilability of quantum mechanics and
general relativity (Einstein's gravitational theory). Many of these paradoxes are simplified or eliminated altogether with
a re-interpretation of quantum mechanics with Planck's hidden time variable and <i>energy</i> constant.
In 1900 Max Karl Planck performed his famous black-body radiation work which sparked the quantum
revolution. Re-examination of that work has revealed hidden variables, consistent with Einstein's famous sentiment that
quantum mechanics is incomplete due to the existence of "hidden variables". The recent discovery of these previously
hidden variables, which have been missing from foundational equations for more than one hundred years, has important
implications for theoretical, experimental and applied sciences and technologies.
Planck attempted to integrate the new "<i>resonant Hertzian (electromagnetic) waves</i>", with existing Helmholtz
theories on energy and thermodynamics. In his famous January 1901, paper on black-body radiation, Planck described
two significant hypotheses - his well known Quantum Hypothesis, and his more obscure Resonance Hypothesis. Few
scientists today are aware that Planck hypothesized resonant electromagnetic energy as a form of non-thermal energy
available to perform work on a molecular basis, and that Planck's Resonance Hypothesis bridged the gap between
classical Helmholtz energy state dynamics of the bulk macrostate, and energy state dynamics of the molecular
Since the black-body experimental data involved only a thermal effect and not a resonant effect, Planck
excluded the resonant state in his black-body derivation. He calculated Boltzmann's constant "k<sub>B</sub>" using completely
thermal/entropic data, arriving at a value of 1.38 ×10<sup>-23</sup> J K<sup>-1</sup> per molecule, representing the internal energy of a
molecule under completely thermal conditions. He further hypothesized, however, that if resonant energy was present in
a system, the resonant energy would be "<i>free to be converted into work</i>".
Planck seems to have been caught up in the events of the quantum revolution and never returned to his
Resonance Hypothesis. As a result, a mathematical foundation for resonance dynamics was never completed.
Boltzmann's constant was adopted into thermodynamic theories without its natural companion, the resonance factor