Spin spray and bath immersion systems are still the competing technologies for mask process. The preference for one or the other is largely dependent on factor such as performance, size, throughput, and cost. This paper focuses on the process optimization of the immersion bath technology in relation to the performance such as particulate soft defects, EAPSM optical parameter change, and antireflective layer reflectivity.
The integration of 193nm Lithography is close to full production for the 90nm node technology. With the potential of emerging 193nm lithographic resolution down to 65nm, the quality of 193nm reticles including binary, EAPSM and AAPSM must be outstanding so that low K1 factor reticles may be used in production. One area of concern in the IC industry is haze contamination on the mask once the reticle has been exposed to ArF radiation. In this study, haze was found outside of the pellicle and on the quartz side of the mask. Standard through-pell inspections will typically miss the contamination, yet its severity can ultimately affect mask transmission. For this reason, DuPont Photomasks and Cypress joined forces to quickly decipher how it develops. In this investigation, tests were devised which altered conditions such as mask environment, exposure, traditional and advanced cleaning chemistry. This paper describes the relationship between surface and environmental photochemical reactions, the resultant growth, analysis, and how it is controlled.
Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is the leading candidate for manufacturing integrated circuits beyond the 45-nm technology node. The masks for EUVL are reflective and significantly different from current transmission masks for deep UV lithography. Many authors have demonstrated the patterning of EUVL masks using different types of absorber stacks that were deposited on top of the multilayer reflector. More recently, a new approach based on the etching of the multilayer reflector in order to define the mask pattern was proposed . Using rigorous electro-magnetic simulations, it was shown that this subtractive approach could provide better process latitude, less H-V bias and smaller image-placement errors compared to the traditional masks based on the additive method. Even though the mask processing shows interesting challenges, this approach might offer immediate advantages over the more traditional patterning technique using the absorber stack, beyond those predicted for lithography imaging. These include the possibility to use optical inspection in transmission mode, which can provide the high-contrast images that are essential for high-sensitivity detection of small defects.
In this paper, we present the first results on the patterning of EUVL masks using the direct etching the EUVL multilayer reflector (Mo/Si type) to produce EUV binary masks. In particular, we show how the process parameters can be adjusted to control the pattern sidewall angle. We also present an analysis of the influence of this sidewall angle on lithography imaging, based on lithography simulations. Finally, we show results from the optical inspection of these etched-multilayer binary masks (EMBM).
Photomask resist strip processes have traditionally used the sulfuric-peroxide-mix, known as SPM, or Piranha. This paper details a recent investigation into the utilization of solvent-based resist strip solutions applied to photomask resist stripping. Studies of two commercially available solvents are documented in this report: one formulated for positive resist stripping [Chem A, which contains a primary amine, glycol and is semi-aqueous], and another rated for 'hard-to-remove' positive resist stripping [Chem B, which contains glycol ethers, organic cyclics -- all proprietary]. Resist types, such as IP3600, and most Chemically Amplified Resists (CAR) will strip easily with any of the chemicals mentioned, however, other adverse effects may deter one from using them. The screening process employed in this study monitors effects of processing on EAPSM phase and transmission, AR layer reflectivity changes and surface ionic analytical comparisons. Chem A and B will show similarly low phase and transmission shifts at higher temperature and longer process times, while reflectivity data shows lower level changes associated with the use of Chem A (favorable). As for surface ionic contamination: on F and Cl contaminated surfaces, Chem A shows favorable results. Overall Chem A seems to be the appropriate choice for more thorough investigation in a production mask-making environment.