The simulation of aerial flying targets is widely needed in many fields. This paper proposes a physically based method for optical simulation of flying targets. In the first step, three-dimensional target models are built and the motion speed and direction are defined. Next, the material of the outward appearance of a target is also simulated. Then the illumination conditions are defined. After all definitions are given, all settings are encoded in a description file. Finally, simulated results are generated by Monte Carlo ray tracing in a physically based renderer. Experiments show that this method is able to simulate materials, lighting and motion blur for flying targets, and it can generate convincing and highquality simulation results.