Proc. SPIE. 6578, Defense Transformation and Net-Centric Systems 2007
KEYWORDS: Defense and security, Safety, Detection and tracking algorithms, Computing systems, Control systems, Analytical research, Dynamical systems, Systems modeling, Prototyping, Information security
English-language policies about the desired behavior of computer systems often suffer from translation errors when
implemented with a proliferation of low-level rules governing access control, resource allocation and configuration. To
solve this, Dynamic Policy Enforcement systems replace these low-level rules with a relatively small number of
semantically grounded, machine-understandable policy statements. These statements use domain terms defined in an
ontology that are formally defined so that they can be enforced by the system but also meaningful to human
administrators to ensure that they accurately represent organizational policies. In this paper, we describe the application
of one such Dynamic Policy Enforcement system, KAoS, to the control of distributed, information-management services
defined by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Joint Battlespace Infosphere (JBI) program. Our research allows
administrators to define the desired behavior of the participants in the system, both human and software, with one
collection of well defined policies. As a result, a single set of tools for the definition, analysis, control, and monitoring
of policy can be used to implement access control, service configuration, and service delivery prioritization.
To implement effects-based operations, Joint Air Operations planners must think in terms of achieving desired effects in the strategic campaign through operational course of action levels of planning. The strategy development tools discussed in this paper were designed specifically to encourage effects-based thinking. The tools are used to build plans, plan fragments and, most importantly, “strategy templates”. Strategy templates are knowledge-level skeletal planning models that guide the design of strategies that specify the necessary mechanisms and actions to achieve desired effects in the battlespace. The strategic planning knowledge captured in the templates may be employed through wizards to help human planners rapidly apply these general strategic models to specific planning problems. To support the abstract concepts required in the templates, and to guide plan authors in applying these abstract templates to real battlespace planning problems and data, we employ a semantic engine to support the tool capabilities. This engine exploits ontologies represented in the DARPA Agent Markup Language (DAML) and employs the Java Expert System Shell (Jess) as the inference engine to implement the axioms and theorems that encapsulate the DAML semantics. This paper will discuss this technology in supporting Effects-based Operations and its application into Command and Control for Joint Air Operations for kinetic and non-kinetic military operations.