Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) are increasingly recognized as having profound effects upon the ecology of coastal waters and upon the economics of fisheries and aquaculture. HABs by contaminating shellfish with biotoxins affect human health and require effective surveillance and management programs to protect human consumers of seafood. Blooms of Pseudo-nitzschia producing a neurotoxin known as Domoic Acid (DA) are of increasing concern as their frequency and intensity increase rapidly. Although these toxic algal blooms represent a serious public health and economic problems, no cost-effective device, allowing the detection of dissolved DA in seawater is not yet available on the market. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensors have demonstrated their ability to detect small molecules at very low concentrations in real-time. We recently reported a rapid SPR biosensor inhibition assay to measure dissolved DA in the seawater matrix in-field deployment. Based on antibodies recognition, this system can detect DA at concentration over a range of 0.1–2 ng.mL−1. However, this first prototype suffered from certain limitations. Multiplexing the assay increasing of the detection range, reproducibility and sample replicates are now required. Thus, a new biosensor based on SPR imaging (SPRi) technique was developed. The prototype was designed to meet high sensitivity, compactness and cost efficiency requirements. The performances of this sensor were first studied in laboratory conditions, then it was deployed mesocosm facility. The new automated SPRi sensor showed promise for in situ detection of DA.
Introduction of new material stacks, more sophisticated design rules and complex 3D architectures in
semiconductor technology has led to major metrology challenges by posing stringent measurement
precision and accuracy requirements for various critical dimensions (CD), feature shape and profile.
Current CD metrology techniques being used in R&D and production such as CD-SEM, Scatterometry,
CD-AFM, TEM have their inherent limitations that must be overcome to fulfil advanced roadmap
requirements. The approach of hybrid automated CD metrology seems necessary. Using multiple tools in
unison is an adequate solution when adding their respective strengths to overcome individual limitations.
Such solution should give the industry a better metrology solution than the conventional approach.
In this work, we will present and discuss a new methodology of CD metrology so-called hybrid CD
metrology that mixes CD data coming from different techniques. In parallel to this hybrid metrology
approach, we must address individual technique enhancement. Subsequently, scanning techniques
enhancement will be presented (CD-SEM and CD-AFM) through contour metrology parameter which
should become a pedestal feature for 1x node production. Finally, we will discuss the potential directions
of a hybrid metrology engine as a generic tool compatible with any kind of CD metrology techniques.