Phononic crystals and acoustic metamaterials enable the precise control of elastic properties, even in ranges inaccessible to traditional materials, making them useful for applications ranging from acoustic waveguiding to thermoelectrics. In particular, surface phononic crystals (SPCs) consisting of periodic nanolines on a semi-infinite substrate can be used to generate narrow bandwidth pseudosurface acoustic waves with exquisite sensitivity to the elastic properties of the underlying substrate. Tuning the period of the surface phononic crystal tunes the penetration depth of the pseudosurface wave, and thus selectively probes different depths of layered substrates. In our experiments, we use ultrafast near infrared laser pulses to excite these waves in the hypersonic frequency range by illuminating absorbing metallic nanolines fabricated on top of complex substrates. We probe the nanoscale dynamics launched by our SPCs via pump-probe spectroscopy where we monitor the diffraction of ultrafast pulses of extreme ultraviolet light generated via tabletop high harmonic generation. We then extract the mechanical properties of the substrate by comparing our measurements to quantitative finite element analysis. Utilizing this technique, we characterize the effective elastic and thermal transport properties of 3D periodic semiconductor metalattices.