We demonstrate that a weakly-coupled nonlinear dielectric waveguide surface-plasmon (DWSP-JJ) system can be formulated in analogy to bosonic Josephson junction of atomic condensates at very low temperatures, yet it exhibits different dynamical features. Such a system can be realized along a metal - dielectric interface where the dielectric medium hosts a nonlinear waveguide (e.g. fiber) for soliton propagation. The inherently dynamic coupling parameter generates novel features in the phase space.
We investigate the application of a metamaterial that is formed by the sparse distribution of spiral resonators as an
optical transformation medium is in order to achieve electromagnetic cloaking. The well-known Clausius-Mossotti
formula relates the microscopic polarizability of a single resonant particle to the macroscopic permittivity and
permeability of the effective medium. By virtue of transformation optics, the permittivity and permeability of the
medium, in turn, can be designed according to a coordinate transformation that maps a certain region of space to its
surrounding. As a result, the mapped region can be cloaked from electromagnetic waves. In this study, the spirals are
optimized to exhibit equal permittivity and permeability response so that the cloak formed by these spirals will work for
both the TE and TM polarizations. An experimental setup is developed to visualize the steady state propagation of
electromagnetic waves within a parallel plate waveguide including the cloaking structure. The measured and simulated
electromagnetic field image indicates that the forward scattering of a metal cylinder is significantly reduced when placed
within the cloak.
We report a true left-handed (LH) behavior in a composite metamaterial consisting of periodically arranged split ring resonator (SRR) and wire structures. The magnetic resonance of the SRR structure is demonstrated by comparing the transmission spectra of SRRs with that of closed SRRs. We confirmed experimentally that the effective plasma frequency of the LH material composed of SRRs and wires is lower than the plasma frequency of the wires. A well-defined left-handed transmission band with a peak value of -1.2 dB (-0.3 dB/cm) is obtained. We also report the transmission characteristics of a 2D composite metamaterial (CMM) structure in free space. At the frequencies where left-handed transmission takes place, we experimentally confirmed that the CMM structure has effective negative refractive index. Phase shift between consecutive numbers of layers of CMM is measured and phase velocity is shown to be negative at the relevant frequency range. Refractive index values obtained from the refraction experiments and the phase measurements are in good agreement. The experimental results agree extremely well with the theoretical calculations.
We review certain novel optical properties of two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals (PCs) which exhibit negative refraction behavior. We investigate two mechanisms which utilize the band structure of the PC and lead to a negative effective index of refraction (neff < 0). The negative refraction phenomenon is demonstrated experimentally and by simulations when the incident beam couples to a photonic band with neff < 0. Further, the PC slab acts like a focusing lens to an omnidirectional source where the properties of focusing depends on the details of the band structure. In one case, by utilizing the TM polarized first band, an image of the source can be formed in the vicinity of the interface with subwavelength resolution. In another case, a TE polarized upper band is used which is able to focus the omnidirectional field far away from the interface with a resolution on par with the wavelength. In the latter case, we explicitly show the flat lens behavior of the structure. These examples indicate that PC based lenses can surpass limitations of conventional lenses and greatly enhance and extend optics applications.
Photonic crystals are three dimensional periodic structures having the property of reflecting the electromagnetic (EM) waves in all dimensions, for a certain range of frequencies. Defects or cavities around the same geometry can also be built by means of adding or removing material. The electrical fields in such cavities are usually enhanced, and by placing active devices in such cavities, one can make the device benefit from the wavelength selectivity and the large enhancement of the resonant EM field within the cavity. By using coupled periodic defects, we have experimentally observed a new type of waveguiding in a photonic crystal. A complete transmission was achieved throughout the entire waveguiding band. The transmission, phase, and delay time characteristics of the various coupled-cavity structures were measured and calculated. We observed the eigenmode splitting, waveguiding through the coupled cavities, splitting and switching of electromagnetic waves in waveguide ports, and Mach-Zender interferometer effect in such structures. The corresponding field patterns and the transmission spectra were obtained from the finite-difference-time-domain (FDTD) simulations. We developed a theory based on the classical wave analog of the tight-binding (TB) approximation in solid state physics. Experimental results are in good agreement with the FDTD simulations and predictions of the TB approximation.