The angular velocity of a vaterite microsphere spinning in the optical trap is measured using rotational Doppler effect. The perfectly spherical vaterite microspheres are synthesized via coprecipitation in the presence of silk fibroin nanospheres. When trapped by a circularly polarized beam, the vaterite microsphere is uniformly rotated in the trap center. The probe beams containing two Laguerre–Gaussian beams of opposite topological charge l = ± 7, l = ± 8, and l = ± 9 are illuminated on the spinning vaterite. By analyzing the backscattered light, a frequency shift is observed scaling with the rotation rate of the vaterite microsphere. The multiplicative enhancement of the frequency shift proportion to the topological charge has greatly improved the measurement precision. The reliability and practicability of this approach are verified through varying the topological charge of the probe beam and the trapping laser power. In consideration of the excellent measurement precision of the rotation frequency, this technique might be generally applicable in studying the torsional properties of micro-objects.
A laser Diode (LD) driver with constant current and temperature control system is designed according to the LD working characteristics. We deeply researched the protection circuit and temperature control circuit based on thermos-electric cooler(TEC) cooling circuit and PID algorithm. The driver could realize constant current output and achieve stable temperature control of LD. Real-time feedback control method was adopted in the temperature control system to make LD work on its best temperature point. The output power variety and output wavelength shift of LD caused by current and temperature instability were decreased. Furthermore, the driving current and working temperature is adjustable according to specific requirements. The experiment result showed that the developed LD driver meets the characteristics of LD.
Controllable rotation of the trapped microscopic objects has traditionally been thought of one of the most valuable optical manipulation techniques. The controllable rotation of a microsphere chain was achieved by the dual-beam fiber-optic trap with transverse offset. The experimental device was made up of a PDMS chip housing two counter-propagating fibers across a microfluidic flow channel. Each fiber was coupled with different laser diode source to avoid the generation of coherent interference, both operating at a wavelength of 980 nm. Each fiber was attached to a translation stage to adjust the transverse offset distance. The polystyrene microspheres with diameter of 10 μm were chosen as the trapped particles. The microfluidic flow channel of the device was flushed with the polystyrene microspheres solution by the mechanical fluid pump. At the beginning, the two fibers were strictly aligned to each other. Five microspheres were captured as a chain parallel to the axis of the fibers. When introducing a transverse offset to the counter-propagating fibers by adjusting the translation stages, the microsphere chain was observed to rotating in the trap center. When the offset distance was set as 9 μm, the rotation period is approximately 1.2s. A comprehensive analysis has been presented of the characteristics of the rotation. The functionality of rotated chain could be extended to applications requiring microfluidic mixing or to improving the reaction speed in a localized environment, and is generally applicable to biological and medical research.
The optimization of buffer gas pressure is very important to improve the performance of the rubidium (Rb) atomic magnetometer. In this paper we briefly introduce the basic principle and the experimental method of the rubidium magnetometer based on Faraday rotation effect, and describe the factors affecting the magnetometer sensitivity, then analyze and summarize the mechanism of the influence of spin-exchange, spin-destruction collisions, radiation trapping and the spin diffusion on spin relaxation of Rb atoms. Based on this, the relationship between the rubidium magnetometer sensitivity, the spin relaxation rate and the gas chamber conditions (buffer gas pressure, the bubble radius, measuring temperature) is established. Doing calculations by the simulation software, how the magnetometer sensitivity and the relaxation rate vary with the gas chamber conditions can be seen; finally, the optimal values of the buffer gas pressure under certain gas chamber conditions are obtained. The work is significant for the engineering development of rubidium magnetometer.
A frequency stabilization technique for a 632.8nm He-Ne laser with a high finesse Fabry-Perot cavity is introduced in this paper. The resonant frequency of the cavity is taken as the frequency standard .In this system the Fabry-Perot cavity is composed of a glass-ceramic spacer, with thermal expansion coefficient smaller than 2×10<sup>-8</sup>/°C ， which means an excellent thermal stabilization which greatly decreases the thermal impacts on the cavity length in the desired constant-temperature environment.The intra-cavity spherical mirror is specially designed, which makes the Fabry-cavity a sensor element in our subsequent experiments for a new practical optical accelerometer .Both cavity mirrors were custom made in our laboratory which have reflectivities greater than 99.995% at 632.8nm, so the Fabry–Perot cavity has a finesse of about 62830. The half-maximum transmission line width is about 55.48 KHz and the free spectral range is 3.5GHz .In the experimental setup, we adopt the frequency stabilization circuit with small dithering .With proper dithering voltage, the laser can be precisely locked to the Fabry-Perot cavity minimum reflection point. Theoretically the frequency stability can reach 10<sup>-10</sup> order.
A new method and its principle are presented for measuring the each component gas pressures in Rubidium (Rb) by the analysis of absorption spectral profile. The experiment system is set up to obtain Rb absorption spectra. And then each component gas pressures in atom vapor cell is estimated. First, the relationships between transmittance of probe light, atom density and absorption cross section are introduced, and the factors which influence the absorption spectral profile and methods to measure gas pressures are given. Second, the frequency-dependence curves of transmittance and the absorption spectra are obtained through tuning the laser frequency through the Rb D1 transition. Finally, the gas pressures of Rb, N2 and He are achieved, through fitting absorption spectral profile referring to half-width and minimum transmittance value of absorption spectra. The experiment results show that gas pressures in Rb atom vapor cell can be accurately measured by absorption spectrometric methods, which will be helpful for the following study of atom vapor cell. The gas pressures of N2 and He measured by the experiments are well matched with design values. The Rb gas pressure is 30%~50% less than the saturated vapor pressure and the suppression may be due to the adsorption of the cell surfaces coated with octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) film.
To produce high-quality, low-scattering optical interference coatings for laser-gyro application, substrates with extremely
smooth surfaces are required for deposition. For successful production of qualified mirrors, characterization of substrates
before coating is essential. Light scattering has been used for decades to characterize the surface roughness of optical
components. Its application in characterizing the surfaces of transparent substrates, commonly used for deposition, is
difficult due to the low scattering of high-quality substrates and the scattering contribution of substrates' back surface
and volume scattering. Light scattering characterization of transparent substrates for laser-gyro application has been
studied in this paper. It has been found that collecting objective is more propitious to eliminate volume scattering and
scattering from back surfaces of substrates than integrating sphere and more appropriate to characterize superpolished
transparent surfaces of substrates for laser-gyro application. Collecting objective whose N.A. is 0.4 has been designed in
ZEMAX. Careful analysis shows that scattering from back surfaces and volume scattering from points with axile
distances to the front surface more than 1.5 millimeters can be eliminated completely. To solve the drift problem of PMT
used for probing scattering light, specific structure of collecting system has been designed, so that scattering light and
reflecting light can strike on the same PMT orderly. It has been found that the drift problem of PMT could be solved with
this setting, so that the stability of the scattering measurement system over long time span could be improved greatly and
its practicability in engineering has been ensured.