Compressional wave detection is useful means for health monitoring of building, detection of abnormal vibration of moving objects, defect evaluation, and biomedical imaging such as echography and photoacoustic imaging. The frequency of the compressional wave is varied from quasi-static to a few tens of megahertz depending on applications. Since the dynamic range of general compressional wave detectors is limited, we need to choose a proper compressional wave detector depending on applications. For the compressional wave detection with wide dynamic range, two or more detectors with different detection ranges is required. However, these detectors with different detection ranges generally has different accuracy and precision, disabling the seamless detection over these detection ranges. In this study, we proposed a compressional wave detector employing optical frequency comb (OFC). The compressional wave was sensed with a part of an OFC cavity, being encoded into OFC. The spectrally encoded OFC was converted to radio-frequency by the frequency link nature of OFC. The compressional wave-encoded radio-frequency can therefore be directly measured with a high-speed photodetector. To enhance the dynamic range of the compressional wave detection, we developed a cavityfeedback-based system and a phase-sensitive detection system, both of which the accuracy and precision are coherently linked to these of the OFC. We provided a proof-of-principle demonstration of the detection of compressional wave from quasi-static to ultrasound wave by using the OFC-based compressional wave sensor. Our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for detecting compressional wave versatile applications in the future.
Refractive index measurement is important for evaluation of liquid materials, optical components, and bio sensing. One promising approach for such measurement is use of optical fiber sensors such as surface plasmonic resonance or multi-mode interference (MMI), which measure the change of optical spectrum resulting from the refractive index change. However, the precision of refractive index measurement is limited by the performance of optical spectrum analyzer. If such the refractive index measurement can be performed in radio frequency (RF) region in place of optical region, the measurement precision will be further improved by the frequency-standard-based RF measurement. To this end, we focus on the disturbance-to-RF conversion in a fiber optical frequency comb (OFC) cavity. Since frequency spacing f<sub>rep</sub> of OFC depends on an optical cavity length nL, f<sub>rep</sub> sensitively reflects the external disturbance interacted with nL. Although we previously demonstrated the precise strain measurement based on the f<sub>rep</sub> measurement, the measurable physical quantity is limited to strain or temperature, which directly interacts with the fiber cavity itself. If a functional fiber sensor can be installed into the fiber OFC cavity, the measurable physical quantity will be largely expanded. In this paper, we introduce a MMI fiber sensor into a ring-type fiber OFC cavity for refractive index measurement. We confirmed the refractive-index-dependent f<sub>rep</sub> shift.
Photo-acoustic imaging is a promising modality for deep tissue imaging with high spatial resolution in the field of biology and medicine. High penetration depth and spatial resolution of the photo-acoustic imaging is achieved by means of the advantages of optical and ultrasound imaging, i.e. tightly focused beam confines ultrasound-generated region within micrometer scale and the ultrasound can propagate through tissues without significant energy loss. To enhance the detection sensitivity and penetration depth of the photo-acoustic imaging, highly sensitive ultrasound detector is greatly desired. In this study, we proposed a novel ultrasound detector employing optical frequency comb (OFC) cavity. Ultrasound generated by the excitation of tightly focused laser beam onto a sample was sensed with a part of an OFC cavity, being encoded into OFC. The spectrally encoded OFC was converted to radio-frequency by the frequency link nature of OFC. The ultrasound-encoded radio-frequency can therefore be directly measured with a high-speed photodetector. We constructed an OFC cavity for ultrasound sensing with a ring-cavity erbium-doped fiber laser. We provided a proof-of-principle demonstration of the detection of ultrasound that was generated by a transducer operating at 10 MHz. Our proposed approach will serve as a unique and powerful tool for detecting ultrasounds for photo-acoustic imaging in the future.
Optical Frequency combs can be used as a tool for fully controlling the phase and frequency information of light waves, i.e., “optical synthesizer”. It provides powerful tools not only in frequency metrology as “ultraprecise frequency ruler” but also in broad area since light wave can be used to its full extent with an extremely wide dynamic range. Frequency-traceable length measurement using frequency combs provides direct realization of the definition of meter, remote calibration using a GPS technology, and precise measurements of wide range of lengths by taking advantage of high dynamic range in frequency measurements. In this paper, ultrahigh-precision length metrology using fiber-based optical frequency combs are presented. By precisely controlling the frequency and phase of the combs, self-correction of air refractive index and noise cancellation in fiber path in interferometer are demonstrated. Heterodyne interferometry of 61- m path-length based on two-color optical frequency combs is developed for air-refractive-index correction. Measured two-color optical-path-differences agreed with calculations with 10<sup>−11 </sup>for 10-hour. Corrected distance variation agreed with thermal expansion of base-plate. A fiber-based optical frequency comb interferometer with 168-m-length reference path was stabilized to nm-level with fiber noise cancellation technique using a single frequency CW laser. Extremely wide range interferometric fringe scanning of 3.3-m path length
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Optical Measurement Systems for Industrial Inspection IX