Hyperspectral sensors are relatively underexploited tools for geothermal resource exploration. However, both short
wave infrared (SWIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) hyperspectral sensors have demonstrated the potential to play a
much more significant role as geologists continue to seek innovative exploration technology to reduce the exploration
Exploration managers are becoming familiar with hyperspectral data and derived imagery. The data derivatives are
used in the early stages of a phased exploration approach to establish a better understanding of the regional structural
setting, and allow the project geologist to optimize field-based exploration methods such as seismic and drilling.
However, there is more opportunity for researchers and geologists to expand on the ways that hyperspectral data can
provide clues about geothermal systems, especially hidden or "blind" systems. Characterization of surface temperature
measurements, development of new target mineral spectra, and recognizing regional trends are some examples of areas
where more knowledge and experience will result in more robust data interpretation.
This paper describes the current National Weather Service's (NWS) system for providing weather alerts in the U.S. and will review how the existing end-to-end architecture is being leveraged to provide non-weather alerts, also known as "all-hazard alerts", to the general public. The paper then describes how a legacy system that transmits weather and all-hazard alerts can be extended via commercial wireless networks and protocols to reach 154 million Americans who carry cell phones. This approach uses commercial SATCOM and existing wireless carriers and services such as Short Messaging Service (SMS) for text and emerging Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) protocol, which would allow for photos, maps, audio and video alerts to be sent to end users. This wireless broadcast alert delivery architecture is designed to be open and to embrace the National Weather Service's mandate to become an "" warning system for the general public. Examples of other public and private sector applications that require timely and intelligent push mechanisms using this alert dissemination approach are also given.