We focus on the determination of the internal luminescence quantum efficiency of a green-emitting organic light-emitting diode (OLED). By considering different geometrical configurations of OLED thin-film stacks, we elucidate the role of the internal luminescence quantum efficiency of the emitter in the thin-film microcavity. Combining optical simulations with experimental results, a comprehensive efficiency analysis is performed. Here the electroluminescence of a set of OLEDs is characterized. Additionally, the devices are characterized using time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The experimental data are analyzed using optical simulations. This analysis leads to a quantification of internal luminescence quantum efficiency and allows conclusions about competing mechanisms resulting in nonradiative recombination of charge carriers.
"Optical Technologies have conquered the world" - their economic key data showed an impressive growth in the past
couple of years, and the predictions for the up-coming years keep the expectations high<sup>1, 2</sup>. In the case of OLED (Organic
Light Emitting Diode) lighting, e.g. IDTechEx is predicting a worldwide market growth from 50 million USD in 2009 to
3.3 billion USD in 2012<sup>3</sup>.
LED and OLED technology, although both being referred to as solid state lighting, are rather complementary in their
characteristics. Whereas LEDs are high efficient point light sources, OLEDs cover large area, diffuse lighting applications
which can follow the increased awareness for creation of personalized atmosphere. Ambience and mood lighting
can be perfectly realized by the means of OLED large area illumination which will pave the way for applications that up
to now could not have been realized.
OLED lighting technology rests on three pillars at the same time, the basic performance like efficiency and lifetime, the
unique features, and costs. These key challenges and their impact on various applications will be discussed.
The transport of charge carriers in polymer-based Organic Light-Emitting Diodes (OLEDs) as determined by the hopping mobility is an important factor influencing both lifetime and performance of OLED devices. It is strongly dependent on the density and energetic distribution of trap states in the polymer material. Especially in multi-component copolymers single functional groups can act as hole or electron traps determining the optical and electrical characteristics of the device. Transient measurements of the charge carrier mobility together with steady-state current-voltage characteristics are used to investigate the behavior of three blue polyspiro-based light-emitting polymers (LEP) with varying compositions. The first material is a simple homopolymer, the second adds a hole transporting component which is copolymerized into the backbone and the third, most complex, additionally includes a blue chromophore. With some of the added components acting as charge carrier traps the electrical behaviour of the diodes changes significantly.
OLEDs for lighting applications are gaining increasing attention due to the possibility to produce large area, 2-dimensional light sources. In contrast to the existing technology e.g. based on white inorganic LEDs this offers a completely new freedom in design for applications of next generation lighting. Today, different approaches to achieve white broadband emission for organic lighting solutions are investigated ranging from devices with blue emission in combination with conversion layers to RGB-color by lateral patterning with the support of active color tunability. Within this contribution we present results of broadband emitting copolymers to achieve white emission. New requirements arising from the shift of OLEDs in a display configuration to those for lighting applications are discussed with focus on the electro-optical behavior. Furthermore, we describe challenges that result from using large active areas and investigate ways to improve large area lighting tiles.
An attractive approach to full color OLED displays is based on white emitting copolymers and color filters. In this paper the special impact of broadband emitting copolymers based on polyspirobifluorene structures is discussed. The EL spectra of broadband emitters in PLEDs are strongly influenced by interference effects as well as by the driving conditions. Experimental results could be confirmed by modelling. Adjustment of emission spectra to the color filter characteristics lead to improved efficiency.
We describe a novel method to measure permeation rates for oxidizing agents with very high sensitivity. The technique is based on monitoring the resistance of a degrading Ca sensor <i>in situ</i>, inside a climate chamber. A sensitivity limit below 10<sup>-6</sup> g/m<sup>2</sup> day is reported for accelerated measurement conditions of 38°C and 90% relative humidity. The benefits of the method are demonstrated for single- and double-sided barrier foils, and the temperature and humidity dependence of the transport through PET is analyzed in detail. The method is also applied to obtain permeation rates for a barrier-coated substrate after as well as during bending. Theoretical simulations are used to evaluate the influence of a defect-dominated transport mechanism on the experimental results and to model the time evolution of the concentration profile in a double-barrier stack. Implications for the development of barrier-enhanced substrates for flexible OLED applications are discussed.
Flexibility is one of the most frequently mentioned advantages if organic light emitting diodes are compared to other display technologies. In this contribution we show how the different functional layers respond to applied mechanical stress. To characterize the intrinsic flexibility of the stacked layers in an organic light emitting diode separately, samples with anode and cathode layers on flexible plastic substrates are investigated separately first. We observe that the ITO can withstand more than 30 000 bending cycles, concave as well as convex, down to a radius of curvature of 8 mm without apparent damage. Furthermore, the operational characteristics of completed flexible organic light-emitting devices built on indium-tin oxide coated poly(ether sulfone) under single bending cycles are investigated. Performance data taken at 15 mm radius of curvature show no influence compared to the non-planar conditions.
Due to their outstanding properties organic light-emitting displays based on conjugated polymers are on the verge of commercialization. Two major disadvantages of the current processing technique for polymers, spin-coating of polymer solutions, are the material waste and the difficulties involved in patterning the polymers. Therefore we investigate the screen-printing for the production of polymer displays. Here we present performance data of screen-printed light-emitting diodes of different colors. In the production process of these diodes we printed two layers successively one over the other. Furthermore, we show images of printed multichrome demonstrators and passive matrix displays. Our data indicate that the screen-printing technique has the potential to replace the classical spin-coat process. We observe luminance of 10,000 cd/m<SUP>2</SUP> at 8 V and peak efficiencies exceeding 10 cd/A for green diodes and half lifetime of 170 hours at 80 degree(s)C and 100 cd/m<SUP>2</SUP> for red diodes which corresponds to about 7,000 hours at room temperature. These values of printed devices are comparable to those of spin-coated ones.
An appropriate choice of the cathode material and the process of cathode deposition is a key issue in the development of polymer light emitting devices. In this paper, we report on the impact of low work function metals on the luminescence efficiency of thin films of polyfluorene type polymers. Photoluminescence as well as electroluminescence experiments are presented, and in both cases, a strong correlation between the metal layer thickness and the luminescence efficiency is demonstrated. By means of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOF-SIMS), the distribution of the metal contamination within the polymer layers is determined. The results strongly suggest that impurity quenching of excitons by metal atoms inside the polymer layer takes place and strongly affects luminescence and device efficiency.