Secondary succession is a process that is often observed taking place in former agricultural ecosystems. Its characteristics are especially important in protected areas, for the purposes of monitoring and protective measures. Effective mapping of succession is facilitated by the development of automated methodologies based on remote sensing data, which are capable of complementing traditional field research. The objective of this work is to determine whether the classification of high-resolution hyperspectral and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data with the use of the random forest algorithm enables us to produce an accurate succession species map. First, feature extraction techniques are applied to 1-m hyperspectral images and a ∼7 point / m2 dense point cloud. Minimum noise fraction layers and vegetation indices are calculated from the hyperspectral data and geometry related indices from the LiDAR data. Finally, the recursive feature elimination algorithm is applied to the combined dataset and the reference polygons to select the optimal set of features for subsequent classification. The results indicate that the proposed methodology has the potential to be used operationally. The final classification product is characterized by a relatively high Cohen’s kappa value of 0.68, with single species classified with various accuracies, expressed by F1 scores ranging from 0.45 to 0.87.
Cities can be characterized with the roughest aerodynamic boundaries, which results in the enhanced turbulent motion and increased drag effect. This leads to reduced wind speeds and directly increases negative effects of living within urban areas. Urban Heat Island, decreased air quality or densely built-up residential/industrial areas occur in many cities, both in temperate and tropical regions, and are included in these negative effects. This case study investigates Warsaw, the capital of Poland, representing a dense, urban environment, located in the temperate zone. It suffers from immense air pollution levels, as well as Urban Heat Island, and the local government is seeking ways to resolve these issues. Among many mitigation techniques, air restoration and exchange system were suggested as appropriate measures, as they address many of the aforementioned issues. The essential elements of such system are ventilation corridors. This paper describes mapping these corridors utilizing the morphometric methods of urban roughness aided by remote sensing data. We focus especially on the terrain topology and texture of single elements, including high vegetation canopy layer. This study considers DSM and different porosity of obstacles, deriving a new outlook at the morphometric methods as a way to improve them. The mapped areas of low roughness characteristics might be appointed as ventilation corridors and play a crucial role in air restoration and exchange system. They may also be included in further planning processes by the local government as preservation areas.
In this work we investigate light beam propagation in twisted nematic liquid crystalline film. In the linear case (for low power of the light beam) the diffraction and walk-off of the light beam is observed. Due to the optical reorientation nonlinearity light beam is self-focusing and finally spatial solitary wave is created. The direction of light beam propagation is also changing with increasing the nonlinear effect. The samples were filled with 6CHBT nematic liquid crystals and we measured the propagation of light beam at the distance of few millimeters. Nonlinear self-focusing was observed for a light power of order of few tenths of milliwats. The experimental results are in a good agreement with theoretical predictions and numerical simulation. The proposed configuration of our cell can be applied to switching of the light beam in low power all-optical systems.