The results of researches presented in article were obtained within implementation of the scientific and technical program for program-targeted financing of applied scientific research on space activities for 2018-2020 by the Aerospace Committee of the Ministry of Defense and Aerospace Industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Considering the high production significance of soil resources for Kazakhstan as the main means of production, soil fertility assessment, methods of rational use of land resources is estimated as a priority scientific direction. The article shows the application of the remote sensing (RS) data and GIS-technologies for the assessment of the soil fertility of the main soils types in Northern Kazakhstan. Kazakhstan is the ninth biggest country in the world, the production resource of arable lands takes more than 18.3 million hectares. Operational assessment of such data is possible only with use of RS methods. Kazakhstan, having own space system of ERS, has the powerful tool for effective management of land resources, operative and reliable monitoring of agricultural production and economic activity. It is established that the pre-sowing content of basic nutrients on the main soil types have the considerable impact on development of cultural plants biomass which is registered by satellites through vegetation indices. On the basis of empirical dependencies using the universal equation by reporting year the particular dependence of significance of some soil nutrients with derivates of vegetation indices according to the RS data is revealed. Results of space monitoring and also the confirmed ground-truth observations noted high anthropogenic influence on the leading soil-forming processes, high coefficient of familiarity of agricultural grounds and the developing processes of soil cover degradation in Northern Kazakhstan.
The results of the project presented in this article were obtained within the framework of the implementation of the Republican budget program 010 "Ensuring the safety and expansion of the use of space infrastructure» from the Aerospace Committee of the Ministry of Defense and the aerospace industry of the Republic of Kazakhstan. Since 2018, the National Operator of the Earth Remote Sensing Space System (JSC NC Kazakhstan Gharysh Sapary) has begun work on studying geographic information systems for conducting space-based monitoring and forest management of the world. In Kazakhstan, forest area occupies less than 5% of the total area of the territory and therefore the question of monitoring of forest resources is particularly relevant: changes in forest area, number of loggings, number of burnt areas, fire danger forecast for forest cover, etc. Given the importance of forest as a climate and resource-forming factor, forest resources, changes in forest resources are estimated as one of the priority of scientific and practical directions. The article presents the results of using the Earth Remote Sensing data and geo-information technologies in the assessment of forest cover of Kazakhstan, the legality of loggings and estimation of the burnt areas, etc. As the result of space-based monitoring, according to the Earth remote sensing data, also confirmed by field surveys in key areas, for the first time ever all forests of Kazakhstan were decrypted, digital maps of forests of Kazakhstan were created with the detailed attribute information up to the species composition of forests, age and other specific information provided by the State Enterprise «Kazakh Forest Management enterprise», several thousand of logging were detected including illegal loggings, burnt areas were also decrypted and all data were uploaded to the industrial geoportal with up-to-date attribute information.