An effect of electron beam irradiation on intelligent properties including mist resistance, wetting and hardness were studied for polymers. The electron beam irradiation decreased the time to clear vision on the misted polymers samples. The treatment was conformed to show the mist resistance of the polymer. To discuss the effect of electron beam on mist resistance, the water wetting indicated by the surface energy was evaluated by using contact angle of sessile drop. Based on ESR results, the effects of electron beam on the mist resistance were discussed. Electron beam irradiation broke the weakly bonded pairs in polymer and formed the dangling bonds. In addition, EB-irradiation enhanced Vickers’ hardness for polycarbonate.
A variable reluctance hybrid magnet has been developed to apply new type of high torque motors. A permanent magnet, electromagnet and yoke construct the variable reluctance hybrid magnet. From an engineering point of view, it is important to know the magnetic field around a variable reluctance hybrid magnet. Based on the results of magnetic flux density measurement around the hybrid variable reluctance magnet, the high magnetic flux density was found at edges and joints. The high magnetic flux density was also obtained with electrical current of 10 A at optimum setting form. Therefore, we concluded that the strong force of rotor of the hybrid motor was generated by high surface flux density of the hybrid magnet.
Effects of EB irradiation on fracture toughness were studied for soda lime glass and glass fiber. The EB irradiation improved the hardness, ductility, fracture stress and fracture toughness. The fracture stress was 1.43 GPa for the glass fiber before EB treatment. The irradiation enhanced the fracture stress. The fracture stress at P<sub>f</sub>=0.5 was 1.89 GPa for glass fiber samples treated by 65 Mrad-irradiation. It was approximately 0.46 GPa larger than that before EB treatment. Based on ESR results, the reinforcement can be explained. The changes in fracture stress were in good agreement with the density change in dangling bonds, because a high tensile glass fiber was obtained at 65 Mrad-irradiation. Thus, we confirmed that the glassy cluster structure with high dangling bond density was obtained in high tensile glass fibers prepared by 65 Mrad-irradiation. The EB irradiation controlled the fracture toughness of glasses. To confirm the mechanism, an alpha-aluminum oxide crystal sheet was also studied.
Three types of magnetic field operated shape memory ceramics have been developed. Namely, the shape memory movements can be operated by changes in magnetic flux density. The reversible shape memory effects are often induced by magnetostriction and magnetic field induced twin formation for Fe-Pd alloys. The former shows the precise shape change, whereas the later shows the large shape change expected. The strain value was about 182 ppm at 0.3 kOe at room temperature. The high magnetostrictive susceptibility was detected at low magnetic field. It was higher than that of Tb<SUB>0.3</SUB>Dy<SUB>0.7</SUB>Fe<SUB>2</SUB> thin film developed. The other magnetic field operated shape change is recently found on softening near critical temperature of superconductors. The softening induced shape memory effect (SSME) has been found from 9.5 K to 20 K in pure metallic niobium.