Extragalactic background light (EBL) consists of entire radiation emitted throughout the cosmic history and is one crucial observable quantity to study astrophysics in the early universe, such as first stellar objects or primordial black holes. In the visible and near-infrared, zodiacal light (ZL), sunlight scattered by interplanetary dust, is the brightest foreground for observer in the near-earth orbit and its uncertainty limits accuracy of the EBL measurement. To overcome this problem, observations from heliocentric distance beyond 5 au, where the ZL is negligible, is promising. To achieve the EBL observation in deep space, we have been developing EXo- Zodiacal Infrared Telescope (EXZIT) onboard a solar sail spacecraft to Jovian Trojans planned in Japan around 2030. According to our mission study, a three-mirror reflective telescope optics design with a 90mm × 50mm effective aperture and 16 deg × 8 deg field of view (FoV) followed by a focal plane array HAWAII-2RG with a linear variable filter makes available to detect the EBL at high significance in 0.4–1.6 μm with specific wavelength resolution of ∼ 20 . In the present study, we develop test optics to demonstrate optical performance in room temperature for the future observation. By adopting only mirrors of aspherical surface, we design the optics whose aberration is minimized to show point spread function (PSF) of approximately 3 pix × 3 pix on the focal plane. The mirrors are fabricated by machining aluminum alloy A6061 with a honeycomb processing on the back surface to reduce the mirror mass. After integrating and aligning the mirrors with support jigs, we measure the PSF on the focal plane by a visible camera by inserting collimated beam of different angle of incidence, covering the whole FoV. We evaluate the PSF size by analyzing encircled energy in comparison with that expected from the ray-trace simulation of the optics. Throughout the FoV of the optics, the measured PSF size is comparable to the simulation. The present study demonstrates the precision machining of the aspherical mirrors and the optical performance of the designed optics. As a next step, we plan to develop thermal structure of EXZIT to demonstrate the optical performance in low temperature.
The HiZ-GUNDAM (high-z Gamma-ray bursts for UNraveling the Dark Ages Mission) is a time-domain and multi-messenger astronomy mission by monitoring high-energy astronomical transient events such as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The HiZ-GUNDAM is designed to provide alerts of high-redshift GRBs with an ultra-wide field X-ray monitor and a co-onboard 30-cm telescope for immediate photometric follow-up observations in the visible and near-infrared. The HiZ-GUNDAM satellite automatically changes its attitude toward the discovered transient object, starts the follow-up observations with the telescope, and sends alert information including the detailed position, the apparent magnitude and photometric redshift of the transient object within one hour. This mission was selected as one of the mission concept candidates of the competitively-chosen medium-class mission of ISAS/JAXA in the mid-2020s. The basic design of the breadboard model of the telescope is undergoing, and the verification plan of it is studied. The optics are cooled down to 200 K by radiation cooling, and infrared detectors are additionally cooled down to 120 K by a mechanical cooler. All mirrors in the telescope are made of the same aluminum-alloy to reduce the alignment errors during cooling. The four-band simultaneous observation is realized by three beam splitters. The HgCdTe and HyViSi detectors are installed in this telescope. Basic technologies for these specifications are demonstrated by our other missions. In addition, the onboard detection algorithm of high-redshift GRBs by distinguishing them from nearby dusty galaxies in the orbit is also studied. In this paper, we introduce the current status of the development of the telescope onboard HiZ-GUNDAM.
The total integrated emission from galaxies, known as the Extragalactic Background Light (EBL), is an important observable for understanding the history of star formation over the history of the universe. Spatial fluctuations in the infrared EBL as measured by the Cosmic Infrared Background ExpeRiment (CIBER), Spitzer and AKARI exceed the predicted signal from galaxy clustering alone. The CIBER-2 project seeks to extend CIBER observa- tions of the EBL throughout the near infrared into the optical, through measurements above Earth's atmosphere during a suborbital sounding rocket flight. The experiment has a LN2-cooled 28.5 cm Cassegrain telescope along with three optical paths and dichroic beamsplitters, which are used to obtain three wide-field images in six broad spectral bands between 0.5-2.0 μm. The three focal planes also contain linear variable filters (LVFs) which simultaneously take spectra with resolution R=20 across the same range. CIBER-2 is scheduled to y multiple times on a Black Brant IX sounding rocket from White Sands Missile Range in the New Mexico desert. For the first flight, scheduled for early 2021, we have completed a variety of pre-flight optical tests, which we use to make focus adjustments, spectral response measurements, and absolute photometric calibrations. In this paper, we describe the methods behind these tests and present their results for pre-flight performance evaluation. In particular, we present measurements of the PSF for each broad spectral band, along with absolute calibration factors for each band and the LVF. Through monochromator scans, we also measure the spectral responsivity of each LVF as a function of position.
HiZ-GUNDAM is a future satellite mission which will lead the time-domain astronomy and the multi-messenger astronomy through observations of high-energy transient phenomena. A mission concept of HiZ-GUNDAM was approved by ISAS/JAXA, and it is one of the future satellite candidates of JAXA’s medium-class mission. We are in pre-phase A (before pre-project) and elaborating the mission concept, mission/system requirements for the launch in the late 2020s. The main themes of HiZ-GUNDAM mission are (1) exploration of the early universe with high-redshift gamma-ray bursts, and (2) contribution to the multi-messenger astronomy. HiZ-GUNDAM has two kinds of mission payload. The wide field X-ray monitors consist of Lobster Eye optics array and focal imaging sensor, and monitor ~1 steradian field of view in 0.5 – 4 keV energy range. The near infrared telescope has an aperture size 30 cm in diameter, and simultaneously observes four wavelength bands between 0.5 – 2.5 μm. In this paper, we introduce the mission overview of HiZ-GUNDAM.