The Dual Etalon Cross Tilt Order Sorted Spectrometer (DECTOSS) uses relatively inexpensive off the shelf components in a small and simple package to provide ultra high spectral resolution over a limited spectral range. For example, the modest first try laboratory test setup DECTOSS we describe in this presentation achieves resolving power ~ 10<sup>5</sup> on a spectral range of about 1 nm centered near 760 nm. This ultra high spectral resolution facilitates some important atmospheric remote sensing applications including profiling cirrus and/or aerosol above bright reflective surfaces in the O<sub>2</sub> A-band and the column measurements of CO and CO<sub>2</sub> utilizing solar reflectance spectra. We show details of the how the use of ultra high spectral resolution in the O<sub>2</sub> A-band improves the profiling of cirrus and aerosol. The DECTOSS utilizes a Narrow Band Spectral Filter (NBSF), a Low Resolution Etalon (LRE) and a High Resolution Etalon (HRE). Light passing through these elements is focused on to a 2 Dimensional Array Detector (2DAD). Off the shelf, solid etalons with airgap or solid spacer gap are used in this application. In its simplest application this setup utilizes a spatially uniform extended source so that spatial and spectral structure are not confused. In this presentation we'll show 2D spectral data obtained in a desktop test configuration, and in the first try laboratory test setup. These were obtained by illuminating a Lambertian screen with (1) monochromatic light, and (2) with atmospheric absorption spectra in the oxygen (O<sub>2</sub>) A-band. Extracting the 1D spectra from these data is a work in progress and we show preliminary results compared with (1) solar absorption data obtained with a large Echelle grating spectrometer, and (2) theoretical spectra. We point out areas for improvement in our laboratory test setup, and general improvements in spectral range and sensitivity that are planned for our next generation field test setup.
We are developing a technique to measure segment misalignment of large telescopes based on wavefront estimation using phase-diverse images. We report the current results of an experiment to measure piston errors on the Keck II primary segmented mirror, through atmospheric turbulence, using phase-diverse phase retrieval. The segment piston errors are separated from the random turbulence by averaging phase estimates from many frames. Phase estimates from real data collected with segments intentionally moved in piston reproduce the observed speckle patterns well. However, average phase maps do not reveal the segment piston errors. Simulations show that the observed data were collected in a regime of turbulence where the current algorithm often fails, but would be expected to work very well when the adaptive optics system is operating. There is reason to believe that we can eventually make the algorithm work with these or similar data if apparent mismatches between the data and our current imaging model are removed.
Protons from solar flares represent the major threat to the scientific performance of a CCD in the SOHO orbit at L<SUB>1</SUB>, decreasing CTE and thus non-uniformly degrading the MTF of the detector. Lattice damage assessment and prediction rely on accurate radiation damage experiments to 'calibrate' numerical simulations and modeling. The energy ranges where TRIM and NIEL represent valid models overlap around a few MeV. Thus, the proton beam from Lockheed PARL's 0.1 to 3 MeV Van de Graaff generator provides a convenient test facility. We present results from an accurate experiment using 2 MeV protons on the MDI detector (LORAL 1024 X 1024 21 micrometers 3P MPP CCD). A premiere feature in the experiment is the achievement of a stable, uniform low fluence and extremely accurate dosimetry at this relatively low energy. Pre- and post-radiation CTE measurements for our specific mode of operation (relatively fast readout rate of 500 kpix/s) is obtained using Fe55 method over a wide temperature range. They reveal somewhat unexpected results. The damage is more severe to parallel CTE than to serial CTE and the former worsens when cooled down to -50 degree(s)C, then improves when cooled further.