In order to understand the mechanism of the pattern wiggling distortion and to find control knobs for improving wiggle performance of spin-on carbon hard mask materials, we have developed analysis method of underlayer (UL) films by utilizing XPS depth profiling using Gas Cluster Ion Beam(GCIB-XPS). Differences of distributions of elemental compositions from the surface to the bottom of the processed or un-processed films have been visualized by GCIB-XPS analysis. Besides, these achievements allow us to identify fluoro substitution of oxygen during etching process as the control knob for the pattern wiggling distortion.
In order to understand the mechanism of line width roughness (LWR) generation and to find control knobs for improving resist patterning properties, we developed precise direct analysis method of resist patterns. This method comprise three important processes: 1. Selective sampling of resist pattern surface and pattern core, 2. Analysis and preparative isolation of collected resist ingredient by μGPC, 3. Structural analysis by Py-GC/MS. μGPC and Py-GC/MS analysis provid resist ingredient distribution information inside resist pattern, which includes original polymer, reacted polymer, and photo acid generator (PAG) through the ArF patterning process. This novel analytical method can provide remarkably helpful information about identifying proper control knobs for lithographic performance of ArF resist and for next generation lithography (NGL), especially extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) materials, where exposure tool time is very limited.
In order to understand the mechanism of line width roughness (LWR) generation and to find control knobs for improving photoresist design, we established PAG activity analysis methods by utilizing Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). TOF-SIMS depth profiling using Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) allowed the ability to clearly identify photoresist ingredient distribution in the photoresist films from the surface to the bottom of the resist films. TEM provided distribution information of photoresist ingredients in nanometer scale. As a result, PAG function and polymer reaction mechanism can be monitored by these methods. The TOFSIMS outputs during coating, exposure, and post-exposure bake (PEB) steps provide indications of distribution change of PAGs, quenching reaction derivatives, and remaining protecting group, which correspond to acid generation distribution, acid diffusion, and diffusion of deprotection reaction in photoresist film respectively during each consecutive lithographic patterning step. The difference in activity of PAGs can also be observed. These novel analytical methods can provide remarkably helpful information about identifying proper control knobs for lithographic performance of photoresist and for next generation lithography (NGL), especially extreme ultra violet lithography (EUVL) materials, where exposure tool time is very limited.
Efficient solid-state emission of organic materials is essential for optoelectronic devices such as organic light-emitting
diodes, light-emitting thin film transistors, semiconductor lasers, and solid luminescent sensors. Therefore, exploration of
novel chromophores that emit visible light with high efficiency in the solid state and understanding of their
characteristics regarding molecular and electronic structures as well as three-dimensional arrangement in the solid state
are highly important for the development and advance of such optoelectronic devices. We will report synthesis,
structures, and photophysical properties of 3,2'-silicon-bridged
2-arylindoles that exhibit blue and greenish blue
photoluminescence with high to excellent quantum yields (0.65~1.0) in the solid states such as microcrystals, thin-film,
and doped polymer film. In addition, synthesis and photophysical properties of
1,4-bis(alkenyl)-2,5-dipiperidinobenzenes that are compact and highly emissive solid fluorophores will be also presented. The emission
colors of the benzenes can be tuned in a range from blue to red by choosing appropriate functional groups incorporated at
the ethenyl moieties.