KEYWORDS: Target detection, Radar, Signal to noise ratio, Doppler effect, Digital filtering, Signal processing, Antennas, Target recognition, Radar signal processing, Commercial off the shelf technology, Filtering (signal processing)
In this paper we present a new through-wall (TW) FMCW radar system. The architecture of the radar enables both high sensitivity and range resolutions of <1.5 m. Moreover, the radar employs moving target indication (MTI) signal processing to remove the problematic primary wall reflection, allowing higher signal-to- noise and signal-to-interference ratios, which can be traded-off for increased operational stand-off. The TW radar operates at 5.8 GHz with a 200 MHz bandwidth. Its dual-frequency design minimises interference from signal leakage, and permits a baseband output after deramping which is digitized using an inexpensive 24-bit off-the-shelf sound card. The system is therefore an order of magnitude lower in cost than competitor ultrawideband (UWB) TW systems. The high sensitivity afforded by this wide dynamic range has allowed us to develop a wall removal technique whereby high-order digital filters provide a flexible means of MTI filtering based on the phases of the returned echoes. Experimental data demonstrates through-wall detection of individuals and groups of people in various scenarios. Target positions were located to within ±1.25 m in range, allowing us distinguish between two closely separated targets. Furthermore, at 8.5 m standoff, our wall removal technique can recover target responses that would have otherwise been masked by the primary wall reflection, thus increasing the stand-off capability of the radar. Using phase processing, our experimental data also reveals a clear difference in the micro-Doppler signatures across various types of everyday actions
Through-the-Wall (TW) radar sensors are gaining increasing interest for security, surveillance and search and rescue applications. Additionally, the integration of Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) techniques with phased array radar is allowing higher performance at lower cost. In this paper we present a 4-by-4 TW MIMO phased array imaging radar operating at 2.4 GHz with 200 MHz bandwidth. To achieve high imaging resolution in a cost-effective manner, the 4 Tx and 4 Rx elements are used to synthesize a uniform linear array (ULA) of 16 virtual elements. Furthermore, the transmitter is based on a single-channel 4-element time-multiplexed switched array. In transmission, the radar utilizes frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) waveforms that undergo de-ramping on receive to allow digitization at relatively low sampling rates, which then simplifies the imaging process. This architecture has been designed for the short-range TW scenarios envisaged, and permits sufficient time to switch between antenna elements. The paper first outlines the system characteristics before describing the key signal processing and imaging algorithms which are based on traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing. These techniques are implemented in LabVIEW software. Finally, we report results from an experimental campaign that investigated the imaging capabilities of the system and demonstrated the detection of personnel targets. Moreover, we show that multiple targets within a room with greater than approximately 1 meter separation can be distinguished from one another.