We have proposed a novel gate-controlled lateral thyristor (GC-LT) and a pixel circuit featuring intrinsic high dynamic range by multi-mode operation. The novel gate-controlled lateral thyristor structure with high sensitivity for weak light is designed. A cooperative pixel circuit is proposed to establish multi-sampling modes. Experimental results show that the gate-controlled lateral thyristor has high sensitivity for weak-light since the minimum distinguishable signal is as low as 1×10-9W/cm2 due to the cycle amplification between cross-coupled bipolar transistors inside the detector. In addition, more than four orders of light intensity from 10-6 to 10-2W/cm2 can be detected by linear mode and logarithmic mode. A high dynamic range more than 140dB are achieved using the pixel circuit by multi-mode operation.