We previously reported the potential of using vascular reactivity during respiratory challenges as a marker to predict the response of breast tumor to chemotherapy in a rat model by using a continuous wave near-infrared spectroscopy. However, it cannot visualize how the vascular reactivity from tumor vessel can predict the tumor response to its treatment. In this study, we utilized a spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system to visualize vascular reactivity of both tumor and normal vasculature during respiratory challenges in a mouse model. We adapted intensity based Doppler variance algorithm to draw angiogram from the ear of mouse (8-week-old Balb/c nu/nu). Animals were anesthetized using 1.5% isoflurane, and the body temperature was maintained by a heating pad. Inhalational gas was switched from air (10min) to 100% oxygen (10min), and a pulse oximeter was used to monitor arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate. OCT angiograms were acquired 5 min after the onset of each gas. The vasoconstriction effect of hyperoxic gas on vasculature was shown by subtracting an en-face image acquired during 100% oxygen from the image acquired during air inhalation. The quantitative change in the vessel diameter was measured from the en-face OCT images of the individual blood vessels. The percentage of blood vessel diameter reduction varied from 1% to 12% depending on arterial, capillary, or venous blood vessel. The vascular reactivity change during breast tumor progression and post chemotherapy will be monitored by OCT angiography.
Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) has been studied to improve its imaging resolution and functional imaging modality without labeling on biology sample. However the use of high numerical aperture (NA) objective lens confines the field of view or the axial imaging range of OR-PAM. In order to obtain images at different layers, one needs to change either the sample position or the focusing position by mechanical scanning. This mechanical movement of the sample or the objective lens limits the scanning speed and the positioning precision. In this study, we propose a multi-depth PAM with a focus tunable lens. We electrically adjusted the focal length in the depth direction of the sample, and twice extended the axial imaging range up to 660 μm with the objective lens (20X, NA 0.4). The proposed approach can increase scanning speed and avoid step motor induced distortions during PA signal acquisitions without mechanical scanning in the depth direction. To investigate the performance of the multi-depth PAM system, we scanned a black human hair and the ear of a living nude mouse (BALB/c Nude). The obtained PAM images presented the volumetric rendering of black hair and the vasculature of the nude mouse.