Kiyoshi Hoshino received two doctor's degrees; one in Medical Science in 1993, and the other in Engineering in 1996, from the University of Tokyo respectively. From 1993 to 1995, he was an assistant professor at Tokyo Medical and Dental University School of Medicine. From 1995 to 2002, he was an associate professor at University of the Ryukyus. From 2002, he was an associate professor at the Biological Cybernetics Lab of University of Tsukuba. He is now a professor. From 1998 to 2001, he was jointly appointed as a senior researcher of the PRESTO "Information and Human Activity" project of the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST). From 2002 to 2005, he was a project leader of a SORST project of JST.