The Keck Planet Finder (KPF) is a fiber-fed, high-resolution, high-stability spectrometer in development for the W.M. Keck Observatory. To measure Doppler shifts to 0.5 m/s or better requires some of the optics be stable to 2 nm vertically and 2 nrad in pitch angle throughout a potentially one hour long observation. One traditional approach to this thermal stability problem is to build a metal bench and then control the spectrometer thermal environment to milli-Kelvin levels. An alternative approach used by KPF is to employ a Zerodur bench of extremely low coefficient of expansion (CTE), which relaxes the thermal stability required for the spectrometer assembly. Furthermore, Zerodur optics with integral mounts are used where possible, and are placed in contact with the bench through Zerodur shims. Springs are used to preload the optics and shims within pockets machined into the Zerodur bench. We will describe how this approach has been adapted for each optic (some of which are 450 mm high with a mass of 30 kg), and how the system meets our earthquake survival requirement of 0.92 g. This mounting scheme allows us to avoid using high-CTE metals or adhesives within the optic mounting system, and therefore fully exploit the high thermal stability of the Zerodur optical bench.
The Keck Planet Finder (KPF) is a fiber-fed, high-resolution, high-stability spectrometer in development for the W.M. Keck Observatory. The instrument recently passed its preliminary design review and is currently in the detailed design phase. KPF is designed to characterize exoplanets using Doppler spectroscopy with a single measurement precision of 0.5 m s<sup>−1</sup> or better; however, its resolution and stability will enable a wide variety of other astrophysical pursuits. KPF will have a 200 mm collimated beam diameter and a resolving power greater than 80,000. The design includes a green channel (445 nm to 600 nm) and red channel (600 nm to 870 nm). A novel design aspect of KPF is the use of a Zerodur optical bench, and Zerodur optics with integral mounts, to provide stability against thermal expansion and contraction effects.
The ICON mission is led by the University of California-Berkeley (Space Sciences Laboratory). In the frame of this mission the Space Center of Liege was involved in the optical design optimization and related analysis, and VUV on ground calibration.
ICON FUV is a two channel spectrographic imager that measures intensity and spatial distribution of oxygen (135.6 nm) and molecular nitrogen (157 nm) of the ionosphere. As those wavelengths are strongly absorbed by the atmosphere, the optical elements of the system have to be tested inside vacuum chambers. Prior to the instrument alignment and calibration, two 3600 gr/mm gratings were characterized. The primary focus is the measurement of the diffraction efficiencies; while the second objective is to select the best grating and to define which is the flight and the spare. A dedicated setup has been developed to assess the grating optical performances under vacuum. A 1 cm diameter collimated beam is generated using an off-axis parabola and a UV source at its focal point. The grating is placed at the center of two rotation stages collinearly aligned. One detector is placed on a rotating arm, deported from its rotation center. A PMT detector records diffracted light intensity with respect to its angular position and its wavelength. Angular incidence on the grating is tuned with the help of the second rotation stage. The grating efficiency homogeneity and scattering properties are measured through a Y-X scan.
The optical calibration of the ICON-FUV instrument requires designing specific ground support equipment (GSE). The ICON-FUV instrument is a spectrographic imager that operates on two specific wavelengths in the UV (135.6 nm and 157 nm). All the operations have to be performed under vacuum UV light. The optical setup is based on a VUV monochromator coupled with a collimator that illuminates the FUV entrance slit. The instrument is placed on a manipulator providing fields pointing. Image quality and spectral properties can be then characterized for each field. OGSE, MGSE, optical calibration plan and vacuum alignment of the instrument are described.