The synthesis and lithographic evaluation of 193-nm and EUV photoresists that utilize a higher-order reaction mechanism of deprotection is presented. Unique polymers utilize novel blocking groups that require two acid-catalyzed steps to be removed. When these steps occur with comparable reaction rates, the overall reaction can be higher order (≤ 1.85). The LWR of these resists is plotted against PEB time for a variety of compounds to acquire insight into the effectiveness of the proposed higher-order mechanisms. Evidence acquired during testing of these novel photoresist materials supports the conclusion that higher-order reaction kinetics leads to improved LWR vs. control resists.
This paper presents two new concepts that together provide a 100,000X improvement in stability
for AAs that produce highly-fluorinated, strong sulfonic acids. These two new design concepts are
based on (1) an olefin-trigger structure and (2) a trifluoromethyl group <i>alpha</i> to the sulfonic ester.
These new concepts led to the synthesis of the first stable acid amplifier that generates triflate acid
and for the synthesis of AAs that are stable enough to be used as monomers in free-radical
polymerization reactions yet produce very strong, fluorinated acids. Lastly, we present preliminary
results where one new AA is able to improve the LER of a control resist from 4.6 ± 0.5 nm to 2.1 ±
A novel series of stable, acid amplifiers (AAs) has been designed and tested for use in Extreme Ultraviolet
(EUV) lithography, that generate strong, fluorinated polymer bound sulfonic acids. Novel polymer bound and
blended AAs were prepared in moderate to good yields and characterized by NMR. We demonstrated by EUV
lithography that the polymer bound AA resist has line-edge roughness (LER) values of 3.8 nm and the
polymer blended AA resist has LER values of 2.1 nm while the control resist has LER values of 4.6 nm.
Although sensitivity comparisons have yet to be made, these new resists using bound and blended AAs are
showing remarkable improvements in LER when compared with the control resist without AAs.
We propose to use an intense short pulse laser of the TEM(1,0)+TEM(0,1) mode in vacuum in order to trap and accelerate an electron bunch. The laser intensity distribution serves a confinement effect for electrons in the transverse direction by a transverse ponderomotive force. The electrons are accelerated longitudinally by a longitudinal ponderomotive force. In our computations, we employ a three-dimensional laser field and the relativistic equation of motion including a relativistic radiation damping effect. The maximum electron energy is about 195 [MeV] with an acceleration gradient of 5.25 [GeV/m] at the laser intensity of 1.23 x 10<sup>18</sup> [W/cm<sup>2</sup>]. An emittance of the electron bunch accelerated is small and the spatial size in the radial and longitudinal directions are about 1000 [μm] and [μm], respectively. Such the electron bunch may have potentials for nano-technology applications, cancer treatment, a new point light source and so on.