Classical plasmonics has mostly focused on structures characterized by large dimension, for which the quantummechanical effects have nearly no impact. However, recent advances in technology, especially on miniaturized plasmonics devices at nanoscale, have made it possible to imagine experimental applications of plasmons where the quantum nature of free charge carriers play an important role. Therefore, it is necessary to use quantum mechanics to model the transport of charge carriers in solid state plasma nanostructures. Here, a non-local quantum model of permittivity is presented by applying the Wigner equation with collision term in the kinetic theory of solid state plasmas where the dominant electron scattering mechanism is the electron-lattice collisions. The surface plasmon resonance of ultra-small nanoparticles is investigated using this non-local quantum permittivity and its dispersion relation is obtained. The successful application of this theory in ultra-small plasmonics structures such as surface plasmon polariton waveguides, doped semiconductors, graphene, the metamaterials composed of alternating layers of metal and dielectric, and the quantum droplets is anticipated.
The interaction of Au particles with few layer graphene is of interest for the formation of the next generation of sensing devices <sup>1</sup>. In this paper we investigate the coupling of single gold nanoparticles to a graphene sheet, and multiple gold nanoparticles with a graphene sheet using COMSOL Multiphysics. By using these simulations we are able to determine the electric field strength and associated hot-spots for various gold nanoparticle-graphene systems. The Au nanoparticles were modelled as 8 nm diameter spheres on 1.5 nm thick (5 layers) graphene, with properties of graphene obtained from the refractive index data of Weber 2 and the Au refractive index data from Palik 3. The field was incident along the plane of the sheet with polarisation tested for both s and p. The study showed strong localised interaction between the Au and graphene with limited spread; however the double particle case where the graphene sheet separated two Au nanoparticles showed distinct interaction between the particles and graphene. An offset was introduced (up to 4 nm) resulting in much reduced coupling between the opposed particles as the distance apart increased. Findings currently suggest that the graphene layer has limited interaction with incident fields with a single particle present whilst reducing the coupling region to a very fine area when opposing particles are involved. It is hoped that the results of this research will provide insight into graphene-plasmon interactions and spur the development of the next generation of sensing devices.
This work presents the details of the numerical model used in simulation of self-organization of nano-islands on solid surfaces in plasma-assisted assembly of quantum dot structures. The model includes the near-substrate non-neutral layer (plasma sheath) and a nanostructured solid deposition surface and accounts for the incoming flux of and energy of ions from the plasma, surface temperature-controlled adatom migration about the surface, adatom collisions with other adatoms and nano-islands, adatom inflow to the growing nano-islands from the plasma and from the two-dimensional vapour on the surface, and particle evaporation to the ambient space and two-dimensional vapour. The differences in surface concentrations of adatoms in different areas within the quantum dot pattern significantly affect the self-organization of the nano-islands. The model allows one to formulate the conditions when certain islands grow, and certain ones shrink or even dissolve and relate them to the process control parameters. Surface coverage by self-organized quantum dots obtained from numerical simulation appears to be in reasonable agreement with the available experimental results.
Nanoparticle manipulation by various plasma forces in near-substrate areas of the Integrated Plasma-Aided Nanofabrication Facility (IPANF) is investigated. In the IPANF, high-density plasmas of low-temperature rf glow discharges are sustained. The model near-substrate area includes a variable-length pre-sheath, where a negatively charged nanoparticle is accelerated, and a self-consistent collisionless sheath with a repulsive electrostatic potential.
Conditions enabling the nanoparticle to overcome the repulsive barrier and deposit onto the substrate are investigated numerically and experimentally. Under certain conditions the momentum gained by
the nanoparticle in the pre-sheath area appears to be sufficient for the driving ion drag force to outbalance the repulsive electrostatic and thermophoretic forces. Numerical results are applied for the explanation of size-selective nanoparticle deposition in the Ar+H<sub>2</sub>+CH<sub>4</sub> plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition of various carbon nanostructure patterns for electron field emitters and are cross-referenced by the field emission scanning electron microscopy. It is shown that the nanoparticles can be efficiently manipulated by the temperature gradient-controlled thermophoretic force. Experimentally, the temperature gradients in the near-substrate areas are measured in situ by means of the temperature gradient probe and related to the nanofilm fabrication conditions. The results are relevant to plasma-assisted synthesis of numerous nanofilms employing structural incorporation of the plasma-grown nanoparticles, including but not limited to nanofabrication of ordered single-crystalline carbon nanotip arrays for electron field emission applications.
This contribution is focused on plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition systems and their unique features that make them particularly attractive for nanofabrication of flat panel display microemitter arrays based on ordered patterns of single-crystalline carbon nanotip structures. The fundamentals of the plasma-based nanofabrication of carbon nanotips and some other important nanofilms and nanostructures are examined. Specific features, challenges, and potential benefits of using the plasma-based systems for relevant nanofabrication processes are analyzed within the framework of the "plasma-building unit" approach that builds up on extensive experimental data on plasma diagnostics and nanofilm/nanostructure characterization, and numerical simulation of the species composition in the ionized gas phase (multicomponent fluid models), ion dynamics and interaction with ordered carbon nanotip patterns, and <i>ab initio</i> computations of chemical structure of single crystalline carbon nanotips. This generic approach is also applicable for nanoscale assembly of various carbon nanostructures, semiconductor quantum dot structures, and nano-crystalline bioceramics. Special attention is paid to most efficient control strategies of the main plasma-generated building units both in the ionized gas phase and on nanostructured deposition surfaces. The issues of tailoring the reactive plasma environments and development of versatile plasma nanofabrication facilities are also discussed.
Conference Committee Involvement (1)
SPIE Micro+Nano Materials, Devices, and Systems
7 December 2015 | Sydney, New South Wales, Australia